Gender Balance in Ukraine: The Indicators, Problems, and Digital Format of Support
Authors: Rudakova S. H., Shchetinina L. V., Poplavska O. M., Danylevych N. S., Lazarieva I. Y.
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The purpose of the article is to study the theoretical and practical principles of ensuring gender balance in the country as a prerequisite for gender equality. Gender equality is a state of equal access to resources and opportunities, regardless of gender, in particular equal participation in economic activity and decision-making, as well as a state of valuation of different aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. Ensuring gender equality in all spheres of human activity is also regulated by Art. 24 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the Law of Ukraine «On Ensuring Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men», ratified by the ILO Convention No. 100 on equal remuneration of men and women for work of equal value and the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU. The article explores the gender balance in domestic enterprises. The ratio of the average wages of women and men in the period 2016–2021 has the dynamics towards reducing the gender gap. In 2021, the gender gap in Ukrainian organizations amounted to 70.8%. In general, in the rankings for 2020, Ukraine ranks 60th out of 160 countries. The most problematic in achieving gender equality in wages are the following areas of activity: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, arts, sports and recreation, financial and insurance activities, postal and courier delivery. In Ukraine, as in other European countries, there are gender stereotypes of professions, due to the nature of work. More «male» are considered the sphere of construction, transport, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, as well as manufacturing industry. More «female» areas of activity include the sphere of health care and social assistance. An important indicator of gender discrimination is women’s participation in politics. As of the beginning of 2021, the number of women in the parliament was 20.8% (in 2020 – 12.8%). Women are often discriminated against in an interview with a potential employer. In particular, there are many advertisements in the media regarding hiring, which contain requirements regarding the age and gender of the employee. Sex screenings are especially often used when it comes to highly paid and prestigious positions. The pandemic has further exacerbated the problems of gender inequality in Ukraine. Almost 40% of women surveyed began to earn less income, and there was also a gap of 20% between the salaries of women and men in the same positions. An equally important role in establishing a gender-balanced approach in the country is knowledge. An important aspect of gender equality is women’s self-education and development. Another problem in Ukraine and in the world in general is to ensure gender balance in the culture of those organizations that, according to stereotypes, are suitable only for men, in particular, law enforcement agencies. Thus, it is determined that there are still manifestations of gender inequality in Ukraine. Obstacles to the gender approach arise not only because of the low level of awareness of gender issues or the lack of political will to implement policies, but also because of the very slow process of public policy development along with the political reality in Ukraine. Therefore, a rapid reform is the best opportunity to integrate the instruments of gender equality and gender approach. Among the main instruments should be tax incentives for maintaining a gender balance among staff, implementing gender quotas in the composition of staff of various categories, using digital reporting of enterprises, promoting the development of remote employment, etc.