ГІГІЄНІЧНА ОЦІНКА ВИРОБНИЧИХ ЧИННИКІВ ЯК ОСНОВА УПРАВЛІННЯ РИЗИКАМИ У РОБОТІ ОПЕРАТОРІВ З ОДЕРЖАННЯ НАНОПОРОШКІВ НІТРИДУ ТИТАНУ, ДИСИЛІЦИДУ ХРОМУ І ДІОКСИДУ ЦИРКОНІЮ
Authors: ЯВОРОВСЬКИЙ О.П., СОЛОХА Н.В., ВЕРЕМЕЙ М.І., КАРЛОВА О.О., БОБИР В.В., ЧОБОТАР А.П.
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We presented the data of our own experimental and clinical studies on the revealing of the effect of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on the organism of the operators, working on the nanoinstallations.
Objective. We studied the hygienic working conditions, healthstate of the operators, and toxicological properties oft he new nanomaterials to prevent their possible negative effect on human.
Materials and methods. Hygienic assessment of physical factors (dust of nanopowders, noise, microclimate) at the workplaces of the operators. Toxicological assessment: establishment of the average mortal dose in white mice and rats at the intramuscular and intraperitoneal administration, the impact of nanopowders on eye mucousand a rabbitskin, and intratracheal administration of titanium nitride nanopowder to rats for the revealing of the possible fibrogenic action. Clinical survey: detection of the activity of ALT, ASTenzymes, totalbilirubin, cholesterol, glucose in the blood of the operator. Ultrasound investigation of the structural changes in the liver by US method. We also studied the impact of nanoparticles on the immune system with the help of enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).
Results. The work of the operators was established to be connected with the impact of physical factors of the working environment: dust, noise, temperature, humidity, infrared radiation, the main factor is a content of nanoparticles in the air of working area. Administration of nanopowders into the stomach of mice in doses of 5000, 10000 and 15000 mg/kg didn’t cause a death of the mice; injection into the rabbit eye caused a poor irritative action. Intratracheal administration of the titanium nitride nanopowders to rats leads to the interalveolar septum thickening, morphological markers of bronchitis development on the seventh day after the administration, and slowly progressing formation of pulmonary fibrosis in a year after a single administration. Clinical assessment of the hepatobiliary system demonstrated an increase of ALT, AST which combined with the changes of lipid metabolism (hypercholesterinemia) and carbohydrate metabolism (hyperglycemia). A long exposure of the nanopowders of the anoxic metal compounds causes the development of the systemic autoimmune response, involving cytokines, and, in its turn, it is a pathogenetic factor in the beginning anddevelopment of the structural vascular changes and toxic disordersof the digestive system.
Conclusions. Obtained data were used for the improvement of the working conditions of the operators engaged in the synthesis of nanoparticles of the anoxic metal compounds.