The aim of this paper is to highlight the current development in the research field for helping
people just exposed to Ebola virus survive (treatment) and to prevent the disease when given
at various times after exposure (vaccine). Concerning the treatment, recombinant anti-Ebola
monoclonal antibodies and small interfering RNAs that block the expression of essential viral
proteins, are the most promising way in stopping the disease when it has already reached the
humans. As far as concerns the prevention field, two candidate vaccines have clinical-grade
vials available for phase 1 pre-licensure clinical trials, and demonstrated to have a 100%
efficacy in studies on non human primates. Well-informed communities can reduce the main
ways of spread the infection, by avoiding unprotected home-based care of people who are
infected and also by completely modifying traditional burial practices that are way of diffusion
of the contagion.
The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West
African countries. The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%. Ebola has been classified as
a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the
virus. However, remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding
the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus. Several animal models have been cultivated to develop
diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutic drugs.
The drug searching for combating the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection is the urgent
activity at present. Finding the new effective drug at present must base on the molecular
analysis of the pathogenic virus. The in-depth analysis of the viral protein to find the binding
site, active pocket is needed. Here, the authors analyzed the envelope glycoprotein GP2
from Ebola virus. Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope
glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus was done. According to this assessment, 7 active pockets
with varied druggability could be identified.
Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic characters for the correct identification and
quality control of Hilleria latifolia (H. latifolia), an important herb in Ghanaian folklore
medicine, for the treatment of infections, pain and inflammation.
Methods: The macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features,
physicochemical and phytochemical features of the medicinally used parts of H. latifolia were
evaluated using standard methods.
Results: The plant has simple, alternate leaves with entire margin. The lamina is ovate to
broadly lanceolate with an acuminate apex. It is hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata. The
plant contains abundant prismatic crystals in all parts. Starch grains abound in the roots. The
quantitative indices of the leaf and physicochemical parameters have also been established.
Conclusions: The pharmacognostic features established in this study may be used as part of
the pharmacopoeial standard for the correct identification and quality control of H. latifolia.
Objective: To verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aescin and aescin liposomes against
Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: Aescin and aescin liposomes were used in vitro on trypomastigotes at different
concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) and exposure times (0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 h). In vivo tests
were performed using mice as the experimental model. Trypanosome evansi infected mice
were treated with aescin and aescin liposomes with doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg during 4 d.
Results: The three concentrations tested in free form and nanoencapsulated showed
trypanocidal activity in vitro, completely eliminating the parasites in small concentration after
6 h of assay. Animals treated with aescin (100 mg/kg) and aescin liposomes (100 mg/kg)
showed increase in longevity, however without curative effect.
Conclusions: Active compounds present in natural products, such as aescin, may potentiate
the treatment of trypanosomosis when used in association with other trypanocidal drugs.
Objective: To document ethnobotanical informations of useful woody plant species in the
region of Kotli, Azad Kashmir.
Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Kotli. Data were collected by interview
and semi structured questionnaire from selected local informants and traditional practitioners
as well as by field assessment.
Results: The present study documented the etnobotanical uses of 33 woody plant species.
Most of the species have been used for dual purpose. Only 5 species are used for one purpose.
Study revealed all species have medicinal value, among which 21 were used as fuel wood
species, 16 as fodder species, 4 as timber wood species, 12 as edible fruit species, 6 as fence or
hedge plant, 7 as ornamental species and 12 species had other uses.
Conclusions: Medicinal plants are still widely used for health care by locals of Kotli. Some
species of woodlands seem to be vulnerable to overcollection and deforestation. As the young
generation is diverted toward allelopathic medicines, ethnobotanical knowledges of important
medicinal plants are restricted to the old people only. It is suggested to close the forest of
district Kotli for next two to three decades for the conservation of plant biodiversity.
Objective: To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange
pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation.
Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea
brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP
grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization
specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations
tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and
EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb)
and bovine testicular hyaluronidase.
Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose
dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93,
P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB.
Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising antihyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical.
In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint
diseases and envenomation.
Objective: To perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to
evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) leaves.
Methods: The dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively
by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate
and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude
extracts. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to
estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl
-2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity.
Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of
phytochemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19
phytoconstituents in hexane extract, 6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract.
Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids. In vitro
antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard
Conclusions: Results of this study show that the leaves of M. peregrina are the rich source
of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many
Objective: To study the in vitro germination and plantlet regeneration from artificial seeds of
Cymbidium aloifolium (C. aloifolium), a highly threatened medicinal orchid of Nepal.
Methods: Artificial seeds were produced in vitro by encapsulation of protocorms with 4%
sodium alginate and 0.2 mol/L calcium chloride solution. In vitro germination and plantlet
regeneration of the artificial seeds were tested by culturing them on different strength
of Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid media (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) and MS liquid medium
supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzyl amino purine and 0.5 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid.
Freshly produced artificial seeds were stored up to 28 d at 4 ºC. In order to check the viability,
storage artificial seeds were treated with five different sterilization techniques (T1, T2, T3, T4,
5) and inoculated on full strength (1.0) of MS liquid medium after each 7 d of interval upto
Results: The highest percentage of germination (100%) of artificial seed was obtained on
quarter (0.25), half (0.5) and full (1.0) strength of MS liquid medium. Experimentally, full
strength of MS liquid medium was more effective for earlier seedling development of C.
aloifolium. Artificial seeds were successfully stored at 4 ºC till 28th days. Treatments T1 and T2
showed 97.5% viability of storage artificial seeds and hence considered as the most effective
sterilization techniques to recover the plant from storage artificial seeds. Plantlets developed
from artificial seeds were successfully acclimatized in potting mixture containing cocopeat,
litter and sphagnum moss with 85% survival rate.
Conclusions: The present study revealed that artificial seeds are the good alternative explants
for in vitro mass propagation and short term conservation of C. aloifolium.
Objective: To investigate the expression of phosphorylated peroxisome proliferators-activated
receptor γ (p-PPARγ) in the aging thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and
the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on the phosphorylation of PPARγ.
Methods: 16, 32 and 64 week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were randomly and
respectively divided into WKY, SHR and SHR+rosiglitazone group (9 in each group). The rats
in SHR+rosiglitazone group were treated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 56
d, whereas normal saline was applied in WKY and SHR groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP)
of rats was measured by tail cuff method. Histopathological damage of thoracic aorta was
analyzed using Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining. Immunohistochemical staining and western
blot were performed to test the level of p-PPARγ protein in the thoracic aorta arising from each
Results: The SBP in 16, 32 and 64 week-old SHR were significantly higher as compared with
those in matched WKY rats (P<0.05, respectively). HE staining showed increased content of
smooth muscle cell, wrinkled lining endothelium and increased thickness of internal elastic
lamina in the thoracic aorta of SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot indicated
that the levels of p-PPARγ in the thoracic aorta arising from SHR were obviously higher than
those in the thoracic aorta arising from WKY rats (P<0.05, respectively). Importantly, the high
SBP, histopathological abnormalities of the thoracic aorta and elevated p-PPARγ expression
were prominently abrogated by rosiglitazone treatment in SHR (P<0.05, respectively).
Furthermore, the SBP, histopathological abnormalities of the thoracic aorta and p-PPARγ
expression were positively correlated with age in SHR (P<0.05, respectively).
Conclusions: The PPARγ phosphorylation was observed in the thoracic aorta of SHR and
its expression was increased by the increase of age. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the
PPARγ phosphorylation and suppressed vascular aging in SHR.
Objective: To verify possible associations between polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase
Mu (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase θ (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1)
genes and susceptibility to lung cancer.
Methods: A total of 106 lung cancer patients and 116 controls were enrolled in a case-control
study. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analyzed using PCR while GSTP1 was analyzed using
PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Risk of lung cancer was estimated as odds
ratio at 95% confidence interval using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for
age, sex, and tobacco use.
Results: GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes did not show a significant risk for developing
lung cancer. A significantly elevated lung cancer risk was associated with GSTP1 heterozygous,
mutant and combined heterozygous+mutant variants of rs1695. When classified by tobacco
consumption status, no association with risk of lung cancer was found in case of tobacco
smokers and nonsmokers carrying null and present genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1. There is
a three-fold (approximately) increase in the risk of lung cancer in case of both heterozygous
(AG) and heterozygous+mutant homozygous (AG+GG) genotypes whereas there is an eightfold increase in risk of lung cancer in cases of GG with respect to AA genotype in smokers.
Conclusions: Carrying the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype is not a risk factor for lung
cancer and GSTP1Ile105Val is associated with elevated risk of lung cancer.
Objective: To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of
Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms
from 9 provinces in Iran.
Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the
brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted
fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated
with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS.
Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine
aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were
suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection
including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The
risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious
bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance
did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion
was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a
significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth.
Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of
aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection.
These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than
reported before in Iran.
Objective: To report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal
disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum
hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually
transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008.
Methods: A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal
cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV
positive patients were screened.
Results: Among the 14639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89
cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination
assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The
syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various
sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a
seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to
1.39% in 2008.
Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD
clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators
of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.
Optic neuritis (ON) may be associated to a range of autoimmune or infectious diseases. We
report herein a case of ON induced by Rickettsia conorii. A 53-year-old woman presented
with a recent decrease in visual acuity and headache. ON was diagnosed on the basis of
ophthalmologic examination and flash visual evoked potentials. Etiological investigation
made in our department eliminated first autoimmune disorders (vasculitis and connective
tissue diseases). Rickettsial optic neuritis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies
in serum and the negativity of other serologic tests. An association between corticosteroids
and cyclines was prescribed with improvement of visual acuity.
The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the
changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health
transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and
altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians
are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to
vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.
Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive
factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco
use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to
rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A
comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate
policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to
provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention.
Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.
The current outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has become a devastating problem, with a
mortality rate around 51%; over 3 132 deaths have been confirmed and even more are expected in
this case. The virus causes a characteristic disease known as hemorrhagic fever. Its symptoms
range from nonspecific signs such as fever, to more specific problems such as serious bleeding.
Transmission occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated fluids. Treatment
is supportive because there are still no specific drugs for use. The present review focuses on the
main features related to the Ebola virus, its transmission, pathogenesis, treatment and control
rms. There is little in-depth knowledge about this disease, but its severity requires attention
and information to prevent a worse scenario than the current.
Breastfeeding, as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life, is a necessary nutritional
requisite in infants. Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding,
some of which still controversial, breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained
lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding. Parasitic infections is
a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population. The
complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites, particularly the helminths may partly
explain their geographical distribution. The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as
well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections, make many of these infections to
likely remain under-recognized. Breast milk, the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to
be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission, but also a general and focused immune
defensive tool against some important parasites. The possibility and influence of small quantities
of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored. It is believed that useful
immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of
parasite antigens, must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits.
Within this context, and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties, researched and
hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary
gland are proposed and reviewed.
Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of
producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing
different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory
conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using
different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This
review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary
metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;
also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.
Sepsis is one of the major causes and predictors of death in patients with visceral leishmaniasis
(VL). Globally, incidence rate of sepsis ranged from 56-91 cases per 100 000 people, with a mortality
rate of 30%. Incidence of sepsis has been raised due to aging of the population and the higher
incidence of immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV, VL and others. The prevalence of sepsis
was reported from 4.2% to 32.3% and 14.1% in VL and VL-HIV coinfected patients, respectively. The
mortality rate of VL patients with sepsis is greater than 50%. Factors associated with sepsis in VL
patients are immune suppression, pancytopenia, HIV co-infection, age <1 year old and >40 years
old, indwelling of central venous lines and hospitalization. Although antimicrobial susceptibility
patterns were not well reported, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated
om patients with VL. So far, limited information is available on sepsis in VL, especially in VLHIV coinfected patients. Therefore, further studies about sepsis prevalence, causative agents and
their antibiotic patterns, and associated factors among VL and VL-HIV coinfected patients are
necessary. This review provides information about bacterial sepsis in patients with VL.
Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by green methods using serum
latex of Calotropis procera at 80 °C and evaluate them against bacteria, dermatophytes and
phytopathogenic fungi comparing with the activity of untreated latex.
Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed by mixing 3% latex serum extract with the
same volume of silver nitrate (2 mmol/L) solution in round flask and heating in water bath at
80 °C. Characterization of silver particles were determined using UV-vis spectrophotometer,
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the green synthesized AgNPs was determined against
bacteria, dermatophytes and phytopathogenic fungi and compared to the crude untreated latex by
agar-well diffusion methods.
Results: Biosynthesis of latex silver nanoparticles was successfully obtained by green method.
The formation of AgNPs has been confirmed by UV-vis, TEM microscopy, X-ray diffraction
and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that synthesized AgNPs are
highly stable spherical shaped particles, well dispersed with a diameter ranged from 4 nm up to
25 nm and an average size of 12.33 nm. AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against Gramnegative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia sp.) and antifungal
activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus terreus.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that serum latex of Calotropis procera was found to display
strong potential for the synthesis of AgNPs as antimicrobial agents through rapid reduction of
silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). The green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial
efficacy than crude latex.
Authors: Tuhin Reza, Sharmin Aktar, Hasan Al Amin, Mashiur Rahman, Afroza Arefin, Nayan Chandra Mohanto, Shahnur Alam, Abdullah Al Mamun, Anwar Habib, Asafudullah, Farjana Nikkon, Khaled Hossain, Zahangir Alam Saud
Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in
Methods: Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The
presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the
toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used
as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food),
respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood
was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were
taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney
dysfunctions were measured.
Results: Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent
manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose
exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler
inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen
of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals.
Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food
preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.
Objective: To analyze antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected weeds commonly found
in Northeast Thailand including Ageratum conyzoides L., Alysicarpus vaginalis L., Commelina
bengalensis L., Euphorbia hirta L., Hyptis suaveolens L., Parthenocissus quinquefolia L., and
Trianthema portulacastrum L.
Methods: Ferric reducing antioxidant power and radical scavenging activity of the aqueous and
ethanol weed extracts were determined. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid
contents were done. Antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae,
Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Ralstonia spp., Xanthomonas campestris pv.
Vesicatoria, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was performed by disc diffusion assay.
Results: The results showed that Euphorbia hirta extract had the highest total phenolic contents
and was the most effective against most of the test organisms compared to the other weed
extracts. Hyptis suaveolens ethanol extract weakly inhibited Ralstonia spp. and Salmonella spp.
(10.42% and 9.84% inhibition, respectively). Trianthema portulacastrum ethanol extract had 20.10%
inhibition against Shigella spp. Parthenocissus quinquefolia aqueous extract strongly inhibited
Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila with 55.90% and 59.68% inhibition, respectively.
Conclusions: These weeds may be serving as a potential source of antibacterial agents.
Objective: To compare effect of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) vaginal gel with
metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis (BV) in terms of initial response to treatment and preventing
recurrence (primary outcomes) and also patient complaints (secondary outcomes).
Methods: In this double-blind, double dummy trial, married women aged 18-49 with BV
were randomized into two groups and administered 5 g of 3% H. perforatum and placebo of
metronidazole (n=82), or 5 g of 0.75% metronidazole and placebo of H. perforatum (n=80) vaginally
r 5 d. Amsel criteria were used for diagnosis and assessing cure and recurrence of BV. The
comparisons was done using Chi-square, Fisher's exact and logistic regression.
Results: At 10-12 d, cure rate was 82% in the H. perforatum and 85% in metronidazole group (risk
ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.3). Among the cured women, recurrence rate was 9%
in the H. perforatum and 13% in the metronidazole group at the 30-35 d visit (risk ratio 0.8, 95%
confidence interval 0.4 to 1.3). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups
regarding any patient complaints, except itching which was less in H. perforatum group (5% vs.
16%, P=0.018 at the first and 13% vs. 43%, P<0.001 at the second follow-up). No significant adverse
event was reported at any groups.
Conclusions: H. perforatum could be a good option for treatment of BV. However, further studies
are needed for its public use.
Objective: To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity of
Mangifera indica (M. indica) and Mucuna urens (M. urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes
(α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of
type 2 diabetes in vitro.
Methods: Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic
acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled
with diode array detection. The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against α-amylase and
α-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and ρ-nitrophenylglucopyranoside as their
respective substrates. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using
partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme; inhibition of Fe2+-
induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.
Results: The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of
some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance, including gallic acid,
chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol.
Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase
activities in a dose-dependent manner, having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order
of aldose reductase>α-glucosidase>α-amylase. With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations
(IC50) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase, M. indica had stronger inhibitory
potency against these enzymes than M. urens. Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced
lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern, with M. indica being more potent than M. urens.
Conclusions: The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M. indica and M. urens
seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2
Objective: To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically
significant medicinal plants (methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia
coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida
Methods: The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food
technique was applied for antifungal test.
Results: The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula (bark), Phyllanthus acidus (fruits),
Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (leaves) and Abelmoschus esculentus (fruits) had significant in
vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug
ciprofloxacin. Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while
potential activity against Gram positive bacteria. The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of
these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenic fungi, and
Polygonum lapathifolium (leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) showed maximum activity,
while Erioglossum rubiginosum (leaves) showed no antifungal activity.
Conclusions: Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and
isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine
their full spectrum of efficacy.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and economic losses of Fasciola spp. isolates and costs
incurred due to liver condemnation from ruminants in Kashan region, center of Iran from 2012 to
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total number of 251 325 slaughtered sheep, goats and
cattle (88 939 sheep, 151 924 goats and 10 462 cattle) were examined via necropsy for fasciolasis in
industrial Kashan abattoirs located in center of Iran. The average weight was calculated as 1 000
g for sheep, 900 g for goat and 5 000 g for cattle in this study region. Based on market value, the
average price of a kilo gram of normal liver at Kashan city during the study period was 8 USD.
The amount of main nutrients and vitamins elimination in liver contaminated to fascioliasis was
Results: Overall 3.28% of the livers were found to be infected. For total number of sheep, goats
and cattle slaughtered annually in region study, it was estimated that 7 505 livers were infected
and total annual economic losses of fascioliasis of studied animals was 41 784 USD (based on
market prices in study period). Of this, 23 360 USD, 30 240 USD and 15 400 USD were associated with
the fascioliasis of sheep, goats and cattle, respectively.
Conclusions: This study indicated that the Fasciola sp. clearly remains prevalent and causes
considerable economic losses in study region in sheep, goats and cattle and presumably, other
areas and hosts of Iran, providing baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially
important parasitic infection in the country.
In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals
including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia.
Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various
mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod
vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with
severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small
mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard
polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA
and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in
term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.
Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost
part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4
million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is
rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for
everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein
reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality. The antihyperlipidaemic activity
of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, which is the top
disease that causes mortality all over the world. Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant
r phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all
over the world. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and legumes and low in saturated
t is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis. Howerver, there
are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease. The
antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus, there is an
increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this review an attempt has
been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants
und widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The antihyperlipidemic
activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the
development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that gradually impairs the person's
memory and ability to learn, reasoning, judgment, communication and daily activities. AD is
characterized clinically by cognitive impairment and pathologically by the deposition of β amyloid
plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and the degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain.
During the progression of AD patients may produce changes in personality and behavior, such as
anxiety, paranoia, confusion, hallucinations and also to experience delusions and fantasies. The
rst neurotransmitter defect discovered in AD involved acetylcholine as cholinergic function is
required for short-term memory. Oxidative stress may underlie the progressive neurodegeneration
characteristic of AD. Brain structures supporting memory are uniquely sensitive to oxidative
stress due to their elevated demand for oxygen. The neurodegenerative process in AD may involve
β amyloid toxicity. Neurotoxicity of β amyloid appears to involve oxidative stress. Currently, there
is no cure for this disease but in new treatments, reveals a new horizon on the biology of this
disease. This paper reviews the effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines
r the treatment of AD. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled
studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders
in the elderly.
Objective: To investigate potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities
of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models.
Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of
the plant extract. In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing test
in Swiss albino mice. All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body
weight. Antibacterial activity was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and
Gram-negative bacterial strains. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cytotoxicity
effects of the plant extract.
Results: The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (IC50~41 µg/mL)
compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (IC50~19 µg/mL). The extract also produced
prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella boydii,
Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the
dose of 30 µg/disc. The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50
values of 40 µg/mL, and also 90% mortality (LC90) value was found to be 160 µg/mL. In analgesic
test, the extract demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.01) analgesic effect in acetic acid
induced writhing in white albino mice at both dose levels.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has
potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the
ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.
Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona
muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus
and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.
Methods: Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary
identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus
were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO
standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to
determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes.
Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids
compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. CPG analysis showed
also the presence of various fatty acids. On adult mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were
observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by
deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality
rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations
tested. The LC
50of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae.
Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents
and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector
Objective: To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean
blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).
Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol
extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant.
Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods
r free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate, 1,2,2-azinobis-(3-
ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid), free radical induced DNA damage, superoxide dismutaselike and catalase assay etc. Furthermore, 1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and
nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts.
Results: Total phenolic contents were found (115.0±3.0) and (4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for
both extracts, respectively and flavonoid contents were (1 942.8±7.0) and (1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100g
esh mass for water and ethonal extracts, respectively. Both the extracts displayed significant
scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (IC50 at 1.8 mg/
mL and 2.05 mg/mL, respectively), 1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (IC50 at
1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively) and nitrite (IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively)
etc. The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production
and cytotoxicity in cell.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of
natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.
Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the crude leaves extracts of Zehneria scabra
(Z. scabra) and Ricinus communis (R. communis) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus
aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistance S. aureus.
Methods: The crude powdered leaves of Z. scabra and R. communis were extracted successively
by organic solvents in increasing polarity [benzene, chloroform:acetone (1:1), 70% alcohol and
distilled water]. The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude leaves extracts of were tested against
standard strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 2923) and clinical isolates of E. coli, S.
aureus and methicillin resistance S. aureus using agar well diffusion method.
Results: In Z. scabra and R. communis leaf extracts, the most sensitive standard strain was S.
aureus with an inhibition zone of (14.00±1.20) mm and (15.90±2.13) mm, respectively. The minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Z. scabra extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95
mg/mL for extract 3 in clinical and standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 and 4
in clinical and standard strains of E. coli. The MIC values of R. communis extracts against test
organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 2 and 3 standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL
for extract 1 in clinical isolate of E. coli. Most of the minimum bactericidal concentration and MIC
values of plant extracts were almost similar particularly in R. communis, or minimum bactericidal
concentration equal to one dilution factor less than MIC value of the extracts mainly in Z. scabra.
Conclusions: The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different
organic solvents used. Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter
compared to the standard strains. Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative
bacteria. Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization
of the methods of plant extracts for an in vitro testing.
Objective: To document the recent livestock related practices and possible unhygienic ways of
pathogen entry. Identification of the potential risk factors for the spread of infection is important
to design an evidence-based disease control programme.
Methods: Rapid assessment method was adopted and a purposive sample of 60 dairy farmers
were interviewed. The following factors were noted for contributing in primary and secondary
transmission of zoonotic infections: (i) persons who come in close contact with animals and their
secretions, (ii) management strategies of farm animals (sheds and environment), (iii) management
practices adopted at farms, (iv) small scale farmers and rural livestock production systems, (v)
milk collection systems.
Results: This research unveiled the certain routes of zoonotic disease transmission. Certain
management practices, precautionary measures and strategies were the pivotal risk factors.
Conclusions: The study emphasizes the need to educate the poor livestock keepers.
Objective: To isolate, purify, characterize, elucidate structure and evaluate bioactive compounds
om the sponge-derived Salinispora sp. FS-0034.
Methods: The symbiotic actinomycete strain FS-0034 with an interesting bioactivity profile was
isolated from the Fijian marine sponge Theonella sp. Based on colony morphology and obligatory
requirement of seawater for growth, and mycelia morphological characteristics the isolate FS-0034
was identified as a Salinispora sp. The bioactive compound was identified by using various
spectral analysis of ultraviolet, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, 1H
nuclear magnetic resonance, correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence
spectral data. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay were performed to evaluate the
biological properties of the pure compound against multi-drug resistant pathogens.
Results: Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Salinispora
sp. FS-0034 by different chromatographic methods yielded the isolation of an antibacterial
compound, which was identified as rifamycin W (compound 1). Rifamycin W was reported for
its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, wild type
Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and displayed minimum
inhibitory concentrations of 15.62, 7.80 and 250.00 µg/mL, respectively.
Conclusions: The present study reported the rifamycin W from sponge-associated Salinispora
sp. and it exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human
pathogens which indicated that sponge-associated Actinobacteria are significant sources of
This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx
jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,
dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of
multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special
staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.
Ocular myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae infestation is an eye infection in humans. A case of
ophthalmomyiasis externa in a young male from Karachi, Pakistan in winter (December 2012),
without history of close proximity to domestic animals or visit to any rural area was reported.
The condition is self-limiting and the disease is confined to the conjunctiva. The eye was locally
anesthetized and washed with 5% povidine iodine solution. A total number of 27 first instar
larvae of Oestrus ovis were removed with fine forceps. The patient received 0.5% moxifloxacin
and diclofenac eye drops for one week. His eye was examined after one day, one week and
one month and the recovery status was favorable. The present case raise the awareness among
ophthalmologists regarding larval conjunctivitis as one of the causes of conjunctivitis and it can
occur throughout the year in any season including winter. Moreover, it can occurr in any area
either rural or urban with or without close proximity to domestic animals especially in subtropical
regions with high parasitic burden.
Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis, or less commonly, Toxocara
cati, which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide. It commonly affects the
pediatric and immunocompromised population; however, it has rarely been reported in the
immunocompetent adults. Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva
migrans and ocular larva migrans. Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to nonspecific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging. A case of 36 year-old male was
presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking
West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from
Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment
available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the use
of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and
WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with
Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank
pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the
Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing,
monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.
Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae),
commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional
medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of
T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through
Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health
related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for
abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,
wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino
acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial,
antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative
and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also
be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.
Those effects should be clarified with further research.
Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of
commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical
composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt.
Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum
Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum
Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn.,
(alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.), Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium
om different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a
particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic
zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties
of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial,
antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory,
antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation
enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic) agents.
Objective: To determine the biological effects of essential oils (EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon
nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii grown in Colombia against two
Lepidoptera larvae, common pests in the oil palm.
Methods: Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact
lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera:
Limacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm2 and 0.002-8 μL/g, respectively.
Results: All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and
Euprosterna elaeasa larvae. Cymbopogon martinii oil was the most active against both pest insect
species, although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic repellent IR3535 on both insects.
Conclusions: Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil
Objective: To obtain the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), complete phenotypic
identification and successfully transfect rat BMSCs by recombinant plasmid pEGFP/Ang-1.
Methods: BMSCs were isolated from bone marrow using density gradient centrifugation method
and adherence screening method, and purified. Then the recombinant plasmid pEGFP/Ang-1
was used to transfect BMSCs and the positive clones were obtained by the screen of G418 and
observed under light microscopy inversely. Green fluorescent exhibited by protein was enhanced
to measure the change time of the expression amount of Ang-1.
Results: BMSCs cell lines were obtained successfully by adherence screening method and
density gradient centrifugation. Ang-1 recombinant plasmid was transfected smoothly into rat
BMSCs, which can express Ang-1 for 3 d and decreased after 7 d.
Conclusions: Adherence screening method and density gradient centrifugation can be effective
methods to obtain BMSCs with high purity and rapid proliferation. Besides, the expression of
transfected recombinant plasmid pEGFP/Ang-1 in rat BMSCs is satisfactory.
Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of
Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present
Methods: Chloroform portion of P. niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel
using gradient systems of hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The fractions were screened for
antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29. Fractions with IC50<10
µg/mL against parasites were further screened for peripheral analgesic activity, while cytotoxicity
was evaluated using THP-1 cells.
Results: Fractions 12-14 were very active (IC50<10 µg/mL) against Plasmodium falciparum and
showed no significant cytotoxicity. Fractions 12 and 13 exhibited significant (P<0.01) reduction
in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, decreasing the number of writhes by 66.67% and 65.22%
respectively and comparable with 100 mg/kg aspirin (65.22%). From fraction 12, a compound was
isolated and identified as sitosteryl-6-β-D-glucoside-6’-palmitate by 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic
resonance and mass spectroscopies.
Conclusions: Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P. niruri with analgesic
activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside palmitate as a chemical marker of activity.
Objective: To investigate the influence of edaravone on the expression of growth arrest and DNA
damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34).
Methods: A total of 108 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham
operation group, model group and edaravone group (36 cases for each group). Transient focal
cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion
in Sprague-Dawley rats. Then, GADD34 expression was measured with immunohistochemistry at
different time-points after reperfusion in the peri-infarct regions of all rats.
Results: The GADD34 expression was detected in the peri-infarct regions of rats 1 h after
reperfusion, which reached its peak 24 h after reperfusion. And edaravone could significantly
down-regulate the GADD34 expression.
Conclusions: Edaravon could down-regulate GADD34 expression, which suggests that edaravone
may exert an important function in inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress reaction by
scavenging free radicals in the upper stream.
Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female
haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S
products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.
Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and
non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by
riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.
Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.
Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female
worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively
correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P<0.05) was
observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.
SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating
activity band being characteristic of E/S products. The SOD activities were found highly sensitive
to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.
Conclusions: Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.
The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products
indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host
immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour
as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across
the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.
The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus
effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which
was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on
Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in dogs
and cats in Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China, and to evaluate the main associated
risk factors relating to exposure to T. gondii in this region.
Methods: Sera from 160 dogs and 116 cats from Zhenjiang City were tested for anti-T. gondii
antibodies using ELISA. The seropositivity by area of activity, sex and age was analyzed.
Results: Overall, 21 dogs (13.1%) and 24 cats (20.7%) had antibodies to T. gondii. The infection
rate in stray dogs (38.7%) and cats (28.6%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in household dogs
(6.9%) and cats (18.2%). The seroprevalence in male dogs (14.8%) and cats (21.05%) were slightly
higher than their female counterparts (11.4% in dogs and 20.0% in cats), but were not significantly
differenent (P>0.05). A high proportion of dogs at 3 to 6 years of age were positive to T. gondii (20.0%)
while cats with relatively high seropositivity rates were at 0 to 1 year of age (33.3%).
Conclusions: The prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City was high,
which is probably the main source of T. gondii infection in this area.
Objective: To develop and characterize multiple-unit-type oral floating microsphere of
motidine to prolong gastric residence time and to target stomach ulcer.
Methods: The floating microspheres were prepared by modified solvent evaporation method.
Eudragit S-100 was used as polymer. Microspheres were characterized for the micromeritic
properties, floating behavior, entrapment efficiency and scanning electron microscopy. The invitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid at pH 1.2.
Different drug release kinetics models were also applied for all the batches. Selected formulations
were also subjected for X-ray radiographic study.
Results: Floating microspheres were successfully prepared by modified solvent evaporation
technique. Microspheres showed passable flow properties. The maximum yield of microspheres
was up to (95.11±0.35)%. On the basis of optical microscopy particle size range was found to
be ranging from (52.18±182.00) to (91.64±5.16) µm. Scanning electron microscopy showed their
spherical size, perforated smooth surface and a cavity inside microspheres. Microspheres were
capable to float up to 20 h in simulated gastric fluid. X-ray radiographic studies also proved its
better retention in the stomach.
Conclusions: On the basis of the results, such dosage forms may be a good candidate for stomach
targeting and may be dispensed in hard gelatin capsules.
Objective: To determine the rate of carcass and offal condemnation in the animals slaughtered at
Yazd slaughterhouse, Yazd, Iran.
Methods: In a nine-month retrospective survey from June 2011 to March 2012, all the carcasses
and offal condemnations for large animals (cattle and camels) and small animals (sheep and goats)
in Yazd Slaughterhouse were carefully recorded daily.
Results: In total, 2 741 large animals (cattle and camels) and 77 515 small animals (sheep and
goats) were slaughtered during the period of this survey. Six carcasses (0.21%) of the large animals
and 18 carcasses (0.02%) of the small animals were condemned. For large animals, condemnations
in summer and autumn were significantly greater than winter (P<0.05). Condemnation rate of liver,
lungs and kidneys for the large animals were 5.36%, 21.23% and 3.68% respectively and for the
small animals were 4.37%, 5.46% and 0.51% respectively. The main recorded reasons for carcass
condemnations in both large and small animals were icterus and cachexia. The most prevalent
lesion resulting in offal condemnation was due to parasitic infection specially metacestods.
Conclusions: This study aimed to show the efficiency of documentation records during meat
inspection at slaughterhouses to monitor the amount of condemnation and possible approaches
to better awareness about the future preventive programs. Considering the percentage of
condemnation of carcass and offal in the present study and their price in Iranian markets, the
overall economic losses seems to be notable at Yazd slaughterhouse.
Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried flowers of Tithonia diversifolia
(Hemsl) A. Gray (T. diversifolia) dry flower-a shrubby plant belonging to the Asteraceae family
and very common in Brazil, providing data to help prevent premature aging skin.
Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included total phenols, tannins, flavonoids,
alkaloids and saponins. The active antioxidant was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method.
Results: The phytochemical screening of T. diversifolia dry flowers revealed the presence of
phenolic compounds (tannins, flavonoids and total phenols), while alkaloids and saponins were
not detected. The IC
50 values showed a strong antioxidant activity of the plant extracts.
Conclusions: Therefore, this study suggests the possibility of using dry flowers extracts of T.
diversifolia for the prevention of cell aging, as was shown to have significant antioxidant activity.
Objective: To determine the presence of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) and the effect of
trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan, Iran, which has
not been reported yet.
Methods: To perform this project, blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and
EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels (12 males and 9 females) aged
3-18 years, from 4 different regions of Semnan.
Results: Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T.
evansi in one of the samples. However, it should be noted that this sample showed a very high
parasitemia (more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG, 1 000×). This
heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of
corneal opacity, intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes. Comparison of hematologyical
and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T. evansi and uninfected camels
indicated anemia, leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia,
reduction A/G ratio, increased α1, β and globulins and decreased of α2 globulins and increased the
concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme.
Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in
dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters
were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.
Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae)
cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were
carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed
according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with
Results: This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds
are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The
lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were
respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.
Conclusions: The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural
A 25 year-old male patient was admitted to the causality with complaints of fever, joints
pain, epistaxis and gingival bleeding, for the last week, the complete blood count revealed
pancytopenia. Serological test for brucella was reported positive as 1/320, but the patient failed to
respond to brucella treatment for 4 d. On day 5th the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia was
confirmed after bone marrow aspiration. Steroid was initiated on 6th day after admission and on
the 3rd day of steroid therapy thrombocytes count was raised to 55×109/L and came up to 180×109/L
on 12th day after admission. Brucella-induced immune thrombocytopenia should be considered
in patient presenting with bleeding and febrile illness especially in endemic region.
The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by
percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing
one or more serpiginous erythematous, indurated, raised and pruritic lesion. The most common
cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancylostoma braziliense located in warm climate zones.
In the present study, authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic
clinical picture: erythematous-papular and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path, with
progressive, and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration, tropical weather
conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.
Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers
might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient
care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis.
An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase
the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research.
In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to
2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel
care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide
information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel
complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research
are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are
available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research
has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections
and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine,
rther research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and
genetic engineering of vectors.
Objective: To study the genetic diversity at the msp-1, msp-2, and glurp genes of Plasmodium
falciparum (P. falciparum) isolates from 3 endemic areas in Thailand: Tak, Kanchanaburi and
Methods: A total of 144 P. falciparum isolates collected prior to treatment during January, 2012 to
June, 2013 were genotyped. DNA was extracted; allele frequency and diversity of msp-1, msp-2,
and glurp genes were investigated by nested polymerase chain reaction.
Results: P. falciparum isolates in this study had high rate of multiple genotypes infection (96.5%)
with an overall mean multiplicity of infection of 3.21. The distribution of allelic families of msp-1
was significantly different among isolates from Tak, Kanchanaburi, and Ranong but not for the
msp-2. K1 and MAD20 were the predominant allelic families at the msp-1 gene, whereas alleles
belonging to 3D7 were more frequent at the msp-2 gene. The glurp gene had the least diverse
alleles. Population structure of P. falciparum isolates from Tak and Ranong was quite similar as
revealed by the presence of similar proportions of MAD20 and K1 alleles at msp-1 loci, 3D7 and
FC27 alleles at msp-2 loci as well as comparable mean MOI. Isolates from Kanchanaburi had
different structures; the most prevalent alleles were K1 and RO33.
Conclusions: The present study shows that P. falciparum isolates from Tak and Ranong
provinces had similar allelic pattern of msp-1 and msp-2 and diversity but different from
Kanchanaburi isolates. These allelic variant profiles are valuable baseline data for future
epidemiological study of malaria transmission and for continued monitoring of polymorphisms
associated with antimalarial drug resistance in these areas.
Objective: To investigate the in vitro effects of the antibacterial drugs, meropenem trihydrate,
piperacillin sodium, and cefoperazone sodium, on the activity of human serum paraoxonase
Methods: hPON1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods,
including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography.
Results: The three antibacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. Inhibition mechanisms
meropenem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium
Conclusions: Our results showed that antibacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity, both
in vitro, with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro.
Authors: Sidgi Syed Anwer Hasson, Mohammed Saeed Al-Balushi, Muzna Hamed Al Yahmadi, Juma Zaid Al-Busaidi, Elias Antony Said, Mohammed Shafeeq Othman, Talal Abdullah Sallam, Mohammed Ahmad Idris, Ali Abdullah Al-Jabri
Objective: To investigate the levels of zinc-α-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) among Omani AIDS patients
receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Methods: A total of 80 Omani AIDS patients (45 males and 35 females), average age of 36 years,
who were receiving cART at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, were
tested for the levels of ZAG. In addition, 80 healthy blood donors (46 males and 34 females),
average age of 26 years, attending the SQUH Blood Bank, were tested in parallel as a control
group. Measurement of the ZAG levels was performed using a competitive enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Results: The ZAG levels were found to be significantly higher among AIDS patients compared
to the healthy individuals (P=0.033). A total of 56 (70%) of the AIDS patients were found to have
higher levels of ZAG and 16 (20%) AIDS patients were found to have high ZAG levels, which are
significantly (P>0.031) associated with weight loss.
Conclusions: ZAG levels are high among Omani AIDS patients on cART and this necessitates the
measurement of ZAG on routine basis, as it is associated with weight loss.
Objective: To determine lethal median dose (LD50) and histopathological toxicity of water extract
of Holothuria atra (H. atra) in mice.
Methods: The behavioral changes, mortality and histopathology examination on liver were
assessed in mice 14 d after the administration (i.p.) of H. atra water extract. Seven doses (10, 20, 30,
50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) of H. atra were used. The control group was treated with normal saline.
Results: In the acute study in mice, the water extracts of H. atra caused dose-dependent general
behavior adverse affects and mortality. The main behavioral sign of toxicity was hypoactivity,
noticed immediately after administration of the extract which was more obvious at the higher
doses and persisted until death. Mortality increased with increasing doses, the calculated LD50
was 41 mg/kg in mice. The liver toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, which
indicated the presence of abnormal hepatocytes with a distorted shape and undefined cell lining
as well as enlarged nuclei in low doses groups. High doses groups indicated a more prominent
distortion of the polyhedral hepatocytes with undefined cell lining, massive cytoplasm, pyknotic,
karyorhexis and karyolytic nuclei (necrosis of hepatocytes). Control group showed polyhedral
hepatocytes with defined cell lining arranged in cords and normal round nuclei, with granular
Conclusions: Because of the relatively low LD50 value in the acute study in mice, it may be
concluded that the H. atra water extract is toxic.
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed
and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin.
Methods: Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups
of rats were conducted; control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were
given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and
cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested
r the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were
assessed in the extracts.
Results: Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed
that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation
of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in
all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine
and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase
and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination
proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and spermshape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures
produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters.
Conclusions: Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role
against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All
studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety.
Objective: To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus
isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum.
Methods: Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with
ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via
high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine
leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds
purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were
identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission
to AntiMarin database.
Results: Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-
methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated
om the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity
against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile,
4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran
compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%)
and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)
ethanone was inactive against the tested targets.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of
pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary
metabolites in fungi.
Objective: To evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous
honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739,
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC
6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Klebsiella pneumonia
ATCC 13883, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Rhizopus oligosporus PCSIR1, Candida albicans ATCC
14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950.
Methods: By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties
including additive effect of starch and non-peroxidase activity, antioxidative properties (phenol
contents, flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity). Prior to
this evaluation, complete physico-chemical properties including pH, color, ash contents, protein
contents, moisture contents, hydroxymethyl furfural contents, total sugar contents, reducing sugar
and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed.
Results: Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e. (0.590 0±0.033 6)% and
small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e. (777.598±9.880) mg/kg. The moisture
contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%-16.6%, total sugar contents from 61.672%-
72.420% and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%-3.93%. Presences of phenolic contents
indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples. All bacteria showed clear inhibition
zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher
concentrations of these honey samples. For Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi,
Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Aspergillus niger, overall the small honey showed the higher
activity than other honey samples.
Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey
according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius
Commission. Evaluation of these honey samples confirms antimicrobial potential of particular
types of honeys indigenous to Pakistan.
Objective: To develop a protocol for breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed
germination rate of Bunium persicum.
Methods: The seeds were treated with 3.1, 6.3, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µmol/L of benzyl aminopurine,
gibberellic acid (GA3), thidiazuron (TDZ) and forchlorfenuron. Then, seeds were transferred to two
different temperature conditions including room temperature (25 °C) and chilling temperature (2-5
Results: The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature (2-5 °C) broke seed dormancy
and showed maximum germination, which was 54.7% after 60 d treatment. Also, the treatment of
dry seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3% germination rate after 120
d. Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moistroom condition, there was evidence of higher and lower seed germination rate: GA3 (100 µmol/L)
with 46.7% and TDZ (50 µmol/L) with 6.67% respectively. In addition, the results showed that under
moist-chilling condition, TDZ (6.3 µmol/L) with 53.3% seed germination rate had higher influence
on breaking seed dormancy. Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moistchilling condition revealed higher rate of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 µmol/L TDZ was
combined with 100 µmol/L GA3, showing 93.7% germination rate.
Conclusions: The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking
of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is
the next restricting factor of plantation still remained. Thus, the subsequent growth of seedlings to
provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.
Objective: To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane
extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS.
Methods: A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small
pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature
r 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis.
Results: The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera
roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102
compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty
acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides,
steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne
and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39
compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound
om the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-
13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and
cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds
of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide
(38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and
N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents.
Conclusions: This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can
be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a
number of bioactive compounds.
Objective: To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6-phosphate
dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso, a malaria endemic
Methods: Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations
A376G, G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and
polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results: The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency was 9.5% in the study population. It was
significantly higher in men compared to women (14.3% vs 6.0%, P=0.049). The 202A/376G G6PD Awas the only deficient variant detected. Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitaemia was
significantly higher among the G6PD-non-deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient
(P<0.001). The asymptomatic parasitaemia was also significantly higher among G6PD nondeficient compared to G6PD-heterozygous females (P<0.001).
Conclusions: This study showed that the G6PD A- variant associated with protection against
asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.
Objective: To identify Candida species in asymptomatic subjects in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina
Faso) by the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2013 in BoboDioulasso to collect fecal and urine specimens from voluntary donors. Fungal strains were isolated
on Sabouraud dextrose agar and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisationtime-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Results: A total of 135 samples including stools (78.5%, 106/135) and urine (21.5%, 29/135) were
analyzed. The results revealed that fecal specimens contained mainly Candida krusei (C. krusei)
(42.5%) followed by Candida albicans (29.3%), Candida glabrata (18.0%) and Candida tropicalis
(C. tropicalis) (4.7%). C. krusei (34.6%) was also found to be the most frequently identified in urine
samples followed by Candida albicans (27.0%), C. tropicalis (15.4%) and Candida parapsilosis.
However, uncommon species such as Candida nivariensis, Candida kefyr, Candida norvegensis,
Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae and Candida robusta were also identified from fecal
and urines samples.
Conclusions: This study noted the emergence of species such as C. krusei, Candida glabrata,
Candida parapsiolosis, C. tropicalis, Candida nivariensis, Candida norvegensis, and others. It is
an imperative to take into account the existence of these species in the therapeutic management
of patients in Bobo-Dioulasso.
Objective: To evaluate the iron-chelating properties and free-radical scavenging activities of
1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) treatment in chronic
iron-loaded β-thalassemic (BKO) mice.
Methods: The BKO mice were fed with a ferrocene-rich diet and were orally administered with
CM1 [50 mg/(kg.day)] for 6 months. Blood levels of non-transferrin bound iron, labile plasma iron,
rritin (Ft) and malondialdehyde were determined.
Results: The BKO mice were fed with an iron diet for 8 months which resulted in iron overload.
Interestingly, the mice showed a decrease in the non-transferrin bound iron, labile plasma iron
and malondialdehyde levels, but not the Ft levels after continuous CM1 treatment.
Conclusions: CM1 could be an effective oral iron chelator that can reduce iron overload and lipid
peroxidation in chronic iron overload β-thalassemic mice.
Objective: To describe the clinical presentation, underlying diseases, antimicrobial
susceptibility, treatment and outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis patients.
Methods: This retrospective study involved all patients with 15 years of age or older who admitted
to Hamad General Hospital with culture proven Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis from January 1,
2007 to December 31, 2012.
Results: A total of ten cases were identified (nine males and one female). Their mean age was
(43.3±12.8) years. Eight patients (80%) had nosocomial meningitis with neurosurgery being the
most frequent associated condition. Fever and altered consciousness were the most frequent
symptom. Cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated protein and glucose levels. Gram stain showed
Gram-negative rods in 50% of cases, while positive cerebrospinal fluid culture results were found
in all patients. Multidrug resistance was observed in two cases, and all patients had received
appropriate empirical and definitive antibiotic treatments. The mean duration of intravenous
antimicrobial treatment was (19.3±7.0) d and all patients with external ventricular drains
underwent removal of the device, while in-hospital mortality was 50%.
Conclusions: The number of cases was too small to come up with therapeutic and prognostic
conclusions. Further large-scale prospective study is needed.