Anti-tumor activity of rice bran hydrolysates on migration, invasion and angiogenesis
Authors: Suphanthip Phusrisom, Laddawan Senggunprai, Auemduan Prawan, Sarinya Kongpetch, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Supawan Thawornchinsombut, Sirithon Siriamornpun, Theeraphan Chumroenphat, Ronnachai Changsri, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan
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Objective: To investigate anti-tumor effect of rice bran hydrolysates (RBH) on proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Methods: RBH was prepared from Tubtim Chumprae rice (Oryza sativa L.) by hydrothermolysis followed by protease digestion. Phenolic content in RBH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Human CCA cells, KKU-156, KKU-452, and KKU-100, were used to study the effects of RBH on proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion by wound healing, Transwell chamber, and fibronectin cell adhesion assays. Angiogenesis was evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Proteins associated with cancer progression were analyzed by immunobloting assays.
Results: RBH contained carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and various phenolic compounds and flavonoids. RBH did not inhibit CCA proliferation, but strongly suppressed migration, invasion, adhesion of CCA cells, and the formation of tube-like capillary structures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, RBH down-regulated phosphorylation of FAK, PI3K, and Akt, suppressed NF-κB nuclear translocation, decreased the expression of ICAM-1, vimentin and vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), and increased the expression of E-cadherin.
Conclusions: RBH suppresses CCA cell migration and invasion and decreases expression of proteins involved in cancer metastasis. RBH is a potential food supplement for cancer prevention.