GOLDEN DREAM AND IRON DREAM: POLITICS AND ETHICS IN MODERN RUSSIAN LITERARY UTOPIAS
Authors: Fishman Leonid G.
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The article considers several domestic literary utopias, which are characterized primarily as utopia of education. Their political and ethical background are analyzed, varieties are
highlighted. It is shown that granting the person more truly human opportunities against powerful impetus of aversion from politics and consumer society lies in the core of utopia of education. However, the author of the article shows moral and ethical vulnerability of a number of utopias of education, which is caused by attempts to apply the criteria of antique civil community ethics (or heroic ethics) to modern societies. Despite well-known universalism of heroic ethics, it is quite
limited. On the ideological level, this leads, in particular, to the author’s inability to separate clearly his (her) utopia from, for example, fascism. It is concluded that utopia of education, utopia of «healthy society» appeared in Russia in 2000th due to the fact that any ideological policy became
impossible, but the desire to change something had not completely extinguished. However, now the change seems to be made not by politicians, but through catastrophic destruction of the old world, by means of weapons, magic, technology, education and training.