Histomorphological study of various patterns in breast lesions, including carcinoma breast
Authors: Zeenath Begum, Mandakini B. Tengli, S. Mahantappa, Farheen, Abdul Lateef.
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Aims and Objectives:
1) To study the prevalence of breast diseases, and
2) To study the histological patterns in inflammatory breast diseases, benign and malignant lesions of breast.
Materials and Method: The present study includes 70 cases from January 2012 to June 2016. The specimens were received in different forms such as excision biopsies, modified radical mastectomies and simple mastectomies. Samples were received from KBN Hospital Gulbarga, to department of Pathology KBNIMS Gulbarga. Detailed gross and microscopic examination was done for each specimen.
Results: During four and a half year study period, out of 70 cases, 51 were benign lesions (constituting 72.85%of total breast lesions). The mean age for benign diseases of breast was 22.5 years and the age range 10 – 50 years and 19 were malignant lesions. Eight cases (42.10%) were below the age of 40 years, with an age range of 20- 80 years. Most common benign breast disease of breast was fibroadenoma (45.71%) (Most common histologic change is that of intracanalicular pattern), followed by lactating adenoma (histologic change related to the stage of pregnancy). Other major lesions encountered were, benign phyllodes (a leaf-like growth pattern of stroma), fibrocystic disease of breast (fibrosis, cyst formation), sclerosing adenosis (increased number of distorted lobules, associated with stromal fibrosis), granulomatous mastitis (composed of non-caseating granulomas, giant cells, and foamy histiocytes) and duct ectasia (dilated duct and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate). Malignant breast lesions were 27.15% of all breast lesions. The most common type of malignancy was infiltrating duct carcinoma- not otherwise specified (84.2%), followed by medullary carcinoma (5.26%), invasive lobular carcinoma (5.26%), and intra- ductal carcinoma (5.26%).
Conclusion: Although benign breast diseases constituted 72.85% of all breast diseases and were mostly fibroadenomas, however, the incidence of malignancy was 27.15%. All breast lesions should be seriously examined because identification of benign lesions like duct ectasia, sclerosing adenosis and granulomatous mastitis is important as they simulate malignancy.