Archaeological monuments of the Bar’s land in Podillya: based on museum materials (VI millennia BC - VI century AD)
Authors: BAKALETS O. А.
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Monuments of material culture left over from ancient peoples who inhabited the territory of the Bar’s land of Podillya are important historical sources. Scientists can objectively examine the major stages of formation and development of human civilization on the territory of Ukraine and our region in particular. The author make an attempt to analyze over 40 Tripol , Cherniakhiv , Gothic settlements, Scythian burial mounds, a number of archaeological monuments discovered by archaeologists and ethnologists, historians in the Bar area at different periods , placed in the founds and exhibitions of Bar District Historical Museum and other institutions of Vinnytsia Oblast .
The territory of Bar district is rich in archaeological monuments which appurtenants to VI millenia BC - VI century. BC
A substantial contribution into studying archaeological monuments of Barschyna was made by the following famous Podillian archaeologists: Y. Sitsinskyi, V. Zahoruiko, V. Prylypko, P. Khavluk, I. Zaiets, D. Hopak, S. Ryzhov, B. Lobai, B. Mahomedov, V. Kosakivskyi, V. Shumova, V. Voskolup, L. Vynohorodska.
During the 20th – beginning of the 21st centuries, almost ten archaeological expeditions were working in the territory of the region. They were organized by the Vinnytsia State Regional Museum of Local-History, the Institute of History, Ethnology and Law of the Mykhailo Kotsubynskyi Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University and the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine. The results of these studies are reflected in the scientific reports of expeditions, regional, district and city periodicals, collections of Vinnytsia Local-History Conferences, in the materials of the 1st International Conference "Bar. Land of Bar in the Light of Centuries" (2008).
According to our calculations, in the land there have been registered 40 settlements of ancient people – tumuls, 6 settlement of the age of Buh-Dniester neolith (6th – 5th millennia BC) (villages of Kosharyntsi, Kuzmyntsi, Mizhlissia, Malchivtsi, Vereshky and Martynivka), 12 Trypillian settlements of the age of aeneolith (4th – 3rd millennia BC) (villages of Yaltushkiv І,ІІ,ІІІ,, Bryhydivka, Mankivtsi, Komarivtsi, Khodaky, Voinashivka, Pylypy, Polove, Haiove and Kolosiivka), 5 ones of bronze age (2nd – 1st millennia BC) (villages of Vasutyntsi, Symenky, Seferivka, Barski Chemerysy, city of Bar), 5 settlements and 4 tumuli of the pre-Scythian (8th – 7th centuries BC) and Scythian period (7th – 3rd centuries BC) (villages of Komarivtsi, Kolosiivka, Haiove, Ukrainske and Ivanivtsi).
Numerous findings settlements of Еastern Slavs, descending to Cherniakhivska, Velbarska and Komarivska cultures of 2nd – 5th centuries AD, revealed along the rivers of Moschanka, Ladova, Riv and their tributaries near the villages of Mytky (tract "Zoloti Kluchi"), Harmaky, haiove, tract "Barske", Mankivtsi, Yaltushkiv, Seferivka, Verkhivka, Kuzmyntsi, Huli, the city of Bar (Kaptsanivka).
The fragments of pottery items in the expositions of the Bar District Museum are the evidence of the most popular trade of the local population – creation of the molded table and kitchen ware; and the presence of foreign ceramic dishes, made on a throwing wheel, as well as Roman coins – denarius, sesterces and asses are evidence of active exchange of goods between the local inhabitors and the Byzantine cities of the Northern Black Sea Coast as well as the Roman Empire.
Among the museum exhibits, the presence of scores of silver, bronze, copper, brass and iron jewelry from Cherniakhivske and Gothic settlements of 2nd – 4th centuries AD is evidence of presence of skilled blacksmiths and jewelers in our land.