EFFECT OF NON-ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (MERCURY. ARSENIC) ON SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE) (REVIEW)
Authors: І. Hrytsyniak, email@example.com, Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv; D. Yanovych, firstname.lastname@example.org, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, Lviv V.; Bekh, email@example.com, Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv
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Purpose. The problem of water ecosystem pollution with heavy metals achieved great actuality during recent years, both because of their significant distribution in environment, and wide spectrum of their toxic effects on fish organism. Much attention in modern scientific literature is given to the problem of the effects of heavy metals, including mercury and arsenic, on fish organism. However, investigations in this field are conducted mainly on cyprinids, while physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the effects of heavy metals on salmonids are less studied. According to this, the studies of the sources of heavy metals in water ecosystems, peculiarities of their action in salmonid organism on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels, species and age-related peculiarities of the effects of heavy metals are of great scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this work is to review the mentioned problems.
Findings. The work characterizes the effects of mercury and arsenic on salmonids on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The article contains characteristic of conditions, under which toxic or lethal action of the mentioned xenobiotics on different species of salmonids was observed.
Originality. The paper summarizes literature data concerning the effect of mercury and arsenic on salmonids. Attention is accented on the sources of the mentioned pollutants in surface waters, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of their effects on salmonids, and on factors, which determine the level of their toxicity. Lethal concentrations of mercury and arsenic to salmonids, depending on experiment duration, species and age-related peculiarities are presented.
Practical value. Data presented in the review can be used for the explanation of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the adaptation of salmonids to surface water pollution with heavy metals, diagnostics of fish pathologies caused by toxic effects of mercury and arsenic, and complex assessment of factors, which influence the toxicity level of the mentioned pollutants in environment.
Keywords: water ecosystems, mercury, arsenic, salmonids, toxicity, biomagnification, metabolism.