The article explores geoinformatics taking into account its evolution. The article analyzes new tasks of geoinformatics. The article notes the trend in the development of the Earth sciences, which is the integration of different sciences in geoinformatics. The article analyzes the place of geoinformatics in geosciences and information sciences. The article explores the interaction of geoinformatics with other sciences. It is revealed that geoinformatics is a system of sciences. Geoinformatics connects two areas: information sciences; earth sciences. The construction of spatial models in geoinformatics has been studied. Geoinformatics is considered from different aspects. It is considered as a system that solves applied problems. It is considered as a system for obtaining knowledge and forming a picture of the world. The interaction of geoinformatics with different types of spaces has been studied. Geoinformatics interacts with different real spaces: outer space, ground space, near-Earth space, underground space. Geoinformatics interacts with different abstract spaces: logical space, topological space, geometric space, parametric space and cognitive space. It is shown that geoinformatics solves the problems of information processing and spatial analysis in any space. The analogy of the development of geodesy and geoinformatics is considered. Geoinformatics processes various spatial and information flows. The analysis allows us to conclude that modern geoinformatics is a science of space.
The menace of the unethical practice in which a contractor discloses the bid price of one contractor or subcontractor to another, in order to obtain a lower bid price, otherwise known as bid shopping has been a major bane of the construction industry. This blight is responsible for a myriad of problems for the industry. This study examines these practices and their effects on the public sector of the construction industry. Thirty-six (36) questionnaires were administered to experts in the area of construction to understand their perspectives on the anomaly and its effect on project delivery in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria. Findings of the study showed that some that 25.0 % of the respondents were Architects, 36.1 % quantity surveyors, 22.2 % were builders, 11.1 % project managers and 5.6 % were structural engineers. The highest educational qualification of respondents in the quantity surveying profession observed were, 41.7% of the respondents had earned B.sc, 27.8 % had HND, and 8.3 % had PGD, while 22.2 %, had MSc. In terms of experience 47.2 % had 5-10 years of experience, 30.6 % had less than 5 years of experience, 19.4 % have 11-15 years of experience and 2.8 % have 16-20 years of experience. 36.1 % of the respondents were consultants, 38.9 % were contractors while 25.0% were clients. Findings further some of the techniques used for bid shopping include post-award bid shopping technique ranked first, pre-award bid shopping technique was ranked second and bidding via an electronic reverse auction technique was ranked third. Effect of bid shopping on project delivery shows that “Promotes lower work quality was ranked first, Delays project completion was ranked second, creates an adverse work environment was ranked third, Increased life costs on a project was ranked third and General inefficient prosecution of work was ranked fifth”. Possible implications of bid shopping indicates that vulnerability to frequent maintenance work was ranked first, High maintenance cost was ranked second, poor workmanship was ranked third, poor value for money was ranked forth, poor aesthetics value was ranked fifth and Collapse of buildings was ranked sixth. Penalties that should be taken against contractors who practice bid shopping, the respondents observed that imposing liquidated damages or fines was ranked first, disqualifying winning bidders who are immediately found guilty of bid shopping was ranked second, no any action was ranked third, suspension of licenses or permit was ranked fourth and eventual punishment by lack of competitive bidding was ranked fifth.
This research focuses on appraising the excellent performance of building projects and in particularits importance especially in developing countries where building construction works are basically manual. The principal aim of this research is to identify the influences upsetting excellent performance of building projects, to evaluate the sternness indices of the factors, and to determine the relationship between the two and recommend measures to reduce its significance on project outcome. Fifty (50) questionnaires were administered to professional staff comprising of Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Builders, Project Managers and Structural Engineers engaged in building projects but only thirty-six (36) of them were returned.T-Test was used to compute factors for the analysis. The study identified: quality training/meeting, conformance to plan and specification, unavailability of competent staff, quality of equipment and raw materials, client interference, slow decision making by client, improper planning, shortage of labour and technical personnel, improper designing, inadequate contractor experience, poor site management and supervision, lack of coordination to solve problem, poor financial control on site, inadequate consultant experience, inadequate site investigation, and inadequacy of design and specification were identified as the factors that affected the quality of performance of building projects and related to clients, consultants and contractors. It is therefore recommended that policy makers, researchers and practitioners look at improving the human resource base through continuous professional and skill development. Again, monitoring systems should be improved at various district offices for the implementation of good construction procedure with the aim of ensuring quality practices. More importantly, design should be re-evaluated before the actual construction through pre-construction conference in order to do away with unnecessary design that will not ensure quality.
The article explores information morphism. Information morphism is considered as a generalization of information transformations with information sets. The article introduces the concepts of direct and inverse morphism. The article introduces the concepts of symmetric and asymmetric morphism. The article introduces the concepts of compositional and non-compositional morphism. The concepts introduced are illustrated by examples from photogrammetry and geoinformatics. Implication and morphism have the same arrow notation. The substantive difference between implication and morphism is shown. Information morphism is considered as categorical modeling. The content of categorical modeling is described. A morphological morphism is described. The semantic and morphological morphism is described. It is shown that the compositional morphism requires the fulfillment of the complementarity condition for the input sets. A symmetric morphism preserves information correspondence. Non-symmetric morphism provides only commensurability. To assess compliance, it is necessary to select a criterion or parameter of informational compliance. A comparative description of information compliance and proportionality is given. Information correspondence is a strict condition between sets. Proportionality is a mild condition between sets. Morphism is not only a generalization of the patterns of the information field, but a method of identifying patterns. Compositional morphism is an example of such a morphism. The use of morphism for metamodeling is noted. Information morphism generalizes information processes and allows their comparative analysis. Information morphism reveals latent factors and extracts implicit knowledge from them.
The main method of influencing the bottomhole formation zone in order to increase the productivity of wells is hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing pursues two main goals: increasing reservoir productivity by increasing the effective radius of well drainage; creation of a highly permeable inflow channel, bypassing the damaged bottomhole zone. The design of this operation should take into account the geological features of the formation in the zone of each well on which hydraulic fracturing is planned. Accordingly, for each well, it is necessary to optimize the crack parameters from the physical and economic points of view.
The properties of the fluids used are of great importance for the effectiveness of the method; the size of the crack opening directly depends on the pressure generated. But under high pressure, liquid can penetrate into the pores, thereby contaminating the rock and formation. In the presence of core material, it is necessary to conduct tests in laboratory conditions to study the nature of formation contamination.
The use of specially treated fluids, specialized for the conditions of hydraulic fracturing only for this formation, anchoring material, equipment and technology provides a greater initial and cumulative increase in oil production.
The purpose of this article is to analyze a pipeline system for maintaining reservoir pressure (RPM) in the implementation of polymer flooding technology. The successful use of polymer flooding is a problem of modern industrial oil production and the efficiency of the oil field as a whole depends on the correct solution.
In the course of writing this article, a brief study of the reservoir pressure maintenance system and some polymer flooding technologies was carried out, as well as an analysis of the reservoir pressure maintenance system. The importance of the waterflooding system as a method of enhanced oil recovery is indicated; the technological essence of polymer flooding has been determined; shows practically applied polymer flooding schemes; a brief description of the following technologies is given: typical polymer flooding technology; polymer flooding technology carried out at the oil fields of OJSC TNK-Nizhnevartovsk, LLC NPO Neftegaztechnologiya and CJSC Concord; Bright Water polymer flooding technology. The analysis of the reservoir pressure maintenance pipeline system performed in the article is illustrated by practical examples.
The paper analyzes the causes of corrosion cracking under stress of main pipelines. To reduce the likelihood of cracking, it is proposed to insulate the inner wall of the main pipeline with a mineral-polymer coating. A mathematical model of heat transfer through a multilayer cylindrical wall in the soil is constructed, which takes into account the influence of soil temperature, the depth of the main pipeline on the heat flow through the pipe wall. As a result, the use of an internal insulating mineral-polymer coating reduces the heat flux through the pipe wall by almost half, which reduces the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking.
An appraisal of planning and control as management tool for optimum productivity on construction sites was assessed with the view of finding the various ways to establish the best alternative planning and control techniques for some particular kinds of projects. Questionnaires were distributed to professionals. Not all construction firms have a separate planning department, this means that they integrate the planning job into other department, and out of the 43 respondents, none had PhD, while majority had M.Sc. A minimum level of planning tools and procedure use is important but what kind of tools is of no importance. However, the most used planning technique for building projects is the Bar chart/Gantt chart and it was discovered that its choice was due to the reasons being that they are simple and easy to handle and manipulate, flexible and it graphically presents the activities with their start time and dates along with links and overlaps. It is suitable for all kinds of project irrespective of its size and nature. Planning tools like progress curve, line of balance, project evaluation and review techniques (PERT) are almost non-existence. The major challenge encountered on site when implementing the plan is delay in completion of the works and dispute does arise between the construction team. Most planners nowadays use computer Aided software to prepare and design their plan, and the major software used is Microsoft project among others. Furthermore, it encourages project managers to believe that although planning does not guarantee project success, lack of planning will probably guarantee failure. Finally, it was revealed from this research that planning is never an easy undertaking but it requires attention since it helps to achieve success. Similarly, Planning is considered a central element of modern project management, the assumption behind the position is that planning reduces uncertainty and increases the likelihood of project success.
The effect of time overrun in building construction projects was assessed with the view of finding the possible ways of mitigating the effects of time overrun in construction project.
A quantitative research method was adopted and data were collected by means of questionnaires. Research findings indicates that the time factor that have impact on construction project delivery include poor budgeting system, lack of proper cash flow, poor resource utilization, improper time schedule plan, unnecessary delays, poor management of time. The view of contractors regarding time in construction is experiencing a positive change from factors that require less concern or factors needed for reference purpose to those factors that determine the success of a project, factors that help in avoiding liquidated damages and the major factors to be considered in the preparation and submission of tender. The research also indicates that various relationships exist between construction project time and cost depending on the perspective in which it is viewed and value considered, relationship ranging from a trade-off to direct professional relationship all explain how related cost and time are in construction projects.
Recently, metal-oxide-semiconductor structures using silicon dioxide is the most common microelectronic structures. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used to isolate pole gate dielectric, and it is also the main material used to make stable, high-performance devices of integrated circuits. Electrical parameters at the Si-SiO2 interface created by gamma irradiation depends on the type and penetration of the implanted ions. The paper provides a method of determining the equivalent circuit of a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure to determine its electrical parameters. The structure Al/SiO2/n-Si irradiated by helium ions with energy 5 MeV at fluence 1012 cm-2 are studied to find its equivalent circuit. Result, the structure’s equivalent circuit composing of a resistor and parallel RC circuit in series does not describe the frequency dependence of the electric loss in an alternating current at the frequency range 20 – 3•106 Hz. In the inversion region with voltage U = -40 V, equivalent circuits are developed and implemented in a wide frequency range. These circuits allow us to easily calculate electrical parameters through the frequency dependence of impedance characteristics.
The article describes model of formation of the picture of the world. It is shown that every individual has personalized picture of the world. Personalized picture of the world is being formed as the objective necessity of development. The article notes that there are three pictures of the world: scientific, everyday world picture and personalized. Personalized picture of the world is formed by education. Personalized picture of the world is approaching the everyday picture of the world on the stage of training. Personalized picture of the world is approaching a scientific picture of the world at the stage of research. Personalized picture of the world can surpass the scientific picture of the world, which is the basis of development.
The article analyzes logical sequences used in logic and computing. The main objective of the research is to show the relationship between logic, computing and functional expressions. Existence of such connection allows to make a comprehensive analysis of formulas and analytic descriptions. Comprehensive analysis simplifies consistency check of formulas. Existence of relationship between three types of descriptions allows to analyze semi-structured information. The article reveals the contents of a logical sequence used for research. In this article, logical sequence is a general concept related to logic and mathematics.
The article analyzes the information monitoring of transport facilities. Information monitoring is integrated monitoring, which includes geo-information monitoring, geodesic monitoring, space monitoring and mathematical modeling methods. Information monitoring also includes digital and information modeling. The article gives a classification of monitoring objects of transport. It is proved that modern information monitoring of transport facilities should be comprehensive. It is shown that the development of information monitoring is fully consistent with the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030 and is included in the objectives of the development of the transport system of Russia.
Centrifugal sectional pumps (CNS) are used for pumping various liquids having properties similar to water in viscosity and activity, as well as chemically active, abrasive-containing and other liquids. This is one of the most common types of centrifugal pumps used in oil and gas fields for pumping oil and water. They are used at booster pumping stations (BPS), central collection and treatment centers for oil and gas (CSPN), at cluster pumping stations (CPS) for pumping water into productive formations, in water and heat supply systems. The prevalence of pumps is explained by their good adaptation in technological processes with pressure requirements changing in time in pipelines. The sectional design of the pumps, when placed in each section of one stage, allows, although in steps, but at relatively short intervals, it is economical to adapt the pump as close as possible to the optimum head. In comparison, with single-stage centrifugal pumps with comparable technical parameters, CNS pumps have smaller diametrical overall dimensions, dimensions and weights of individual assemblies and parts, therefore they are more convenient to maintain and repair.
At present, the demand for small-capacity grid-connected photovoltaic system is growing, because it reduces the cost of storage systems. The article focuses on analyzing the voltage quality of small-capacity grid-connected photovoltaic system in low voltage distribution networks at yard of Quang Tri Branch – Hue University, Viet Nam. The analysis proceeds over dark time, when the system consumes electricity, and over light time, when the system put electricity into the grid. Analysis results indicate that system parameters has match the requirements and the emergence of small-capacity grid-connected photovoltaic system contributes to improving the total harmonic distortions of low-voltage network.
For buildings and other constructions, fire protection is a must. The fear of uncontrolled fires and the desire to avoid their consequences is as ancient as human civilization. This fear has obvious enduring roots: unwanted fire is a destructive force that takes many thousands of human lives and destroys large quantities of asset. The primary objective of fire protection is to limit loss of properties and lives in the event of unexpected fires. Active fire protection is effective and efficient in most situations. However, passive fire protection, which includes the use of fire-proofing materials, provides an on-site fire resistance measure to prolong the longevity of load-bearing structures. Certainly, the nature, causes and scope of such events have changed considerably over millennia but fear and avoidance have remained as a primary human reaction and as an important human objective, respectively, for virtually every society. This paper will discuss on risk posed by fire, the passive fire protection components, conventional protection materials and thermally reactive materials. From the review, it can be concluded that Active fire protection is effective and efficient in most situations passive fire protection, which includes the use of fire-proofing materials, provides an on-site fire resistance measure to prolong the longevity of load-bearing structures.
The article analyzes the system information as a particular type of information, describing complex systems. It is shown that system information can only exist in complex systems with the property of emergence. The work describes the basic formal descriptions of complex systems. This article describes the evolution of the linear description of complex systems. The article contains set-theoretical descriptions of complex systems. Descriptions of complex systems, including system information explicitly, have been obtained. The article provides insight into the contents of the system information. The article introduces the definition of system information.