Genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s disease in Ukraine
Authors: A. K. Koliada, T. V. Pletneva, A. S. Sosedko, M. A. Chyvlyklyj, A. M. Vaiserman, I. N. Karaban
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The paper focuses on the genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD) such as polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, GSTM1 and APOE. A total number of 516 people were examined. 300 persons were in the control group (mean age 67,0 ± 0,4 years; 200 males and 100 females) and 216 persons were patients with PD (mean age 65,0 ± 0,7 years, 116 males and 100 females). Whole blood samples collected from each person were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Amplification and restriction results were assessed by conducting vertical agarose gel electrophoresis. The study analyzed marker с.2452C>A in the CYP1A1 gene. In the control group, allele C frequency was 0.79, and allele A frequency – 0.21. Genotype frequencies were: CC – 0.61, AC – 0.36, AA – 0.03. In the group of patients alleles C and A frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36 correspondingly. Genotype frequencies were: CC – 0.35, AC – 0.58, AA – 0.07. There was a significant difference between both groups in allele A frequency. It is considered that 0/0 genotype for the GSTM1 gene is a risk factor for PD. In the controls, +/+ and 0/0 genotypes frequencies were 0.67 and 0.33 correspondingly. In the group of patients +/+ genotype frequency was 0.55 and 0/0 genotype frequency – 0.45. The difference was statistically significant. In the control group genotype frequencies for the АРОЕ gene were 0.715 (Е3/Е3), 0.077 (Е3/Е4), 0.009 (Е4/Е4), 0.167 (Е2/Е3), 0.031 (Е2/Е4) and 0.000 (Е2/Е2). In the group of patients with PD they were 0.634 (Е3/Е3), 0.148 (Е3/Е4), 0.032 (Е4/Е4), 0.157 (Е2/Е3), 0.023 (Е2/Е4) and 0.000 (Е2/Е2). Е3/Е4 genotype frequency was significantly higher in the group of patients with PD than in the control group. Pathogenic allele с.2452C>A of the CYP1A1 gene is associated with increased risk of PD (OR = 1.72). 0/0 genotype carriers have higher risk to develop PD (OR = 1.72). Allele έ4 of the АРОЕ gene may be associated with increased risk of PD. Risk of the disease is higher in έ2 allele carriers (OR = 2.35) and έ4 allele carriers (OR=1.97). People with genotype Е4/Е4 have chances to be affected by PD 3.48 times higher (OR = 3.48). Associations revealed in the different human populations between genetic factors and PD may vary that is associated with the genetic heterogeneity and proportion of environmental factors which affect people. Despite the results are sometimes controversial, they can be helpful in developing DNA-tests for early diagnosis of PD.