THE WINE-MAKING IN CRIMEA (THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY)
Authors: Lenara S. Adjiyeva
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The second half of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century for Crimea were associated with formation and consolidation of capitalist relations. These processes have found reflection in the successful development of agriculture of peninsula. The wine-making were good developed. During the studied time it’s become to industry, wine production increased more than 4.5 times, the industry has become a lucrative article of Crimean economy. Despite the importance of winemaking, the historical aspect of this question is still little known in science.
East war has become a serious challenge to social and economic development of the Crimea. the agricultural sector fell into disrepair. If at the beginning of the war in 1853 at Tavriyska province produced 429.7 thousand buckets (about 10 liters) of wine, in the 1857 production level dropped nearly tripled to 149.83 thousand. In 1867 were achieved 88.2% of the prewar level of wine production. New and restored plantations began to appear on the outskirts of Simferopol, Sevastopol and Balaklava, valleys of Belbek, Kacha, Alma, Black, Bulganak.
The specialists of the Department of Agriculture in Crimea in 1860-1870's systematically monitor the development of winemaking and research in this area, develop proposals for the creation of markets for grapes and wine, establishing to make analyzes of chemical composition of wines and more. On the peninsula were introduced advanced technology of wine production : from grape varieties of Semillon, Sovinyon, Sersial, Erimitazh, Nebbiolo-bianno, Russap, Verdi White, Cabernet, Saperavi, Malvasia, Zantskyy White, Pinot Black were created and launched production of strong-type wines like Madeira, liqueurs, sweet, champagne and other. The major supplier of Crimean wine in the 1860s became the cellar "Magarach". Here were created good quality wines with steady flavor characteristics: "Nikitskoye krepkoe", "Beloe iz maderskih loz", "Krasnoe krepkoe iz maderskih loz", "Stolovoe beloe magapachskoe", "Stolovoe beloe Nikitskoe" etc.
With the laying of railways in 1874, that stretched first to Simferopol, and a year later in Sebastopol, were revived trade, increased exports of wine on the domestic markets of the empire (the central part of the Volga, Siberia).
By the mid-1870s on the peninsula amount of annual wine production were brought to 600 thousand buckets, of which 250 thousand were in the Southern coast of Crimea.
The increasing of the area under vineyards on the peninsula made it possible to conduct industrial winemaking. Massandra and "Magarach", great wineries, dealers and wine cellars became the centers of industrial winemaking, like: Gubonin in Gurzufe, Tokmakov-Molotkov in Alushta, Tayurskiy in Castel, S. Vorontsov, Keller in Partenit, Beketov near Alushta, which gained wide fame and worldwide recognition.
In the 1870-1890's the market demand for wine prompted the owners to expand the area of vineyards. Over these years, they increased by 26% (in most large landowners), and the volume of wine production increased from 1 to 1.3 million buckets. It was 8% of the total empire wine production. In 1893 were sold wine almost 3.3 million rubles, and exports of Crimean wine in 1899 was 200 thousand buckets.
In the beginning of the XX century the situation escalated cause of the crisis through the lean years, weak demand, monopolizing of the production and widespread falsification of wine. In 1903-1914's the wine production increased 1.5 times and reached 2 million buckets of wine for a total of 3 million rubles.
In Crimea in the second half of the XIX – in the beginning of the XX century were approved the commercial wine-making. Being a predominantly agricultural area, the peninsula has become one of the most advanced capitalist regions of the empire. Here were intertwined modernization processes in economics and pre-capitalist and traditional forms of management. The introduction of advanced scientific thought in the production, contributed to the improvement of quality wine production, its recognition in Europe and the world, strengthening the authority of the peninsula as a center of the wine business.