Aspects of preformulation in Bhasma Kalpa (Incinerated metallic drug or medicines)
Authors: Dhirajsingh S Rajput, Rohit Gokarn, Anita Wanjari, Bharat Rathi
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Preformulation is the stage of drug development in which the physicochemical properties are characterized by some parameters such as organoleptic properties, purity, particle size, shape and surface area, solubility, temperature, pH, co-solvency, solid dispersion, crystal properties, polymorphism, preformulation stability studies, pKa determination (Dissolution constant), partition coefficient, Chemical stability profile etc. Bhasma (Incinerated metallic drugs or medicines) are highly potent formulations frequently used in Ayurveda. In the context of Bhasma, Ayurveda has mentioned many parameters such as Varitaratva, Rekhapurnatva, Apunarbhava, Niruttha, Niswadu etc which are equivalent to some physicochemical testing parameters described in modern science. To ensure the safety and efficacy profile of these formulations is the need of hour to know their physic-chemical properties with respect to both Ayurvedic and modern tests such as Apunarbhav, Niruttha, Varitar, TGA, FTIR, XRD, ICP-AES etc. In present work an attempt has been made to study the significance of preformulation studies and co-relation between various parameters mentioned in Ayurveda and modern science with special reference to Bhasma. The review indicates that Ayurvedic testing parameters can be correlated with modern testing parameters and establishing their correlation will create a new path for understanding pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ayurvedic medicines as well as in developing advanced dosage forms. It is clear from the review that Ayurvedic testing methods are preliminary tests before utilizing Bhasma for therapeutic purposes and advanced analytical techniques can be utilized for standardization, characterization and for accessing safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines.