Oral Biofilm- A Review
Authors: Basawaraj Biradar, Sudharani Biradar, Babita Malhan, Arvind MS, Monika Arora.
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Microbial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria and are common in the human oral cavity and in the environment. Dental plaque is structured microbiology, and pathophysiology of dental biofilms. Biofilm increases bacteria’s resistance to both the host’s defense system and antimicrobial action. If it’s not removed regularly, the biofilm undergoes maturation and can lead to dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. In addition, subgingival biofilm in patients with periodontitis, has been associated with various systemic diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. So it’s important to understanding of the nature and pathophysiology of the dental biofilm to implement proper management strategies. Although dental biofilm cannot be eliminated by daily oral care but it can be reduced and controlled. Biofilm can be controlled by daily regimen of thorough mechanical oral hygiene procedures, including tooth brushing and interdental cleaning. The root canal anatomy provides excellent conditions for a biofilm to develop which is one of the main causes for caries and later progress to pulpal diseases. The following review article explores the biofilm formation which commences from adhesion of planktonic microorganisms to a surface followed by colonization, coadhesion, growth and maturation and finally detachment of some microorganisms on the tooth surface and inside the root canal.