Incidence of structural chromosomal anomalies in patients of acute myeloid leukemia in North Indians
Authors: Rakesh Kumar Verma*,Sangharsh Rao,Navneet Kumar,U S. Singh,Archana Kumar
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Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a tumor of hematopoietic progenitors caused by acquired oncogenic mutations that impede differentiation, leading to the accumulation of immature myeloid blasts in the marrow. The single most important prognostic factor in AML is cytogenetics, which determine the prognosis and probability of relapse after treatment. Hence the cytogenetic analysis of AML patients plays a great role in prognosis and treatment.
Materials and Methods: Karyogram of diagnosed patients of AML was prepared from bone marrow and peripheral blood. This study was conducted in the Cytogenetic Laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, King George’s Medical University, UP, Lucknow. Patients were screened in the Department of Pediatrics Medicine and the samples were collected from there.
Observations and Results: We observed the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in different age groups and sex. Out of 22 successful cases 12 cases (54.54%) exhibited abnormal karyogram and 10 cases (45.45%) showed normal karyogram. Among total 22 cases, structural chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 11 cases (50%). Translocation was present in 9 cases (40.90%), p-arm abnormality on chromosome 19 (add 19p) was present in 1 case (4.54%) and q-arm abnormality on chromosome 16 (del 16q) was present in 1 case (4.54%).
Discussion and Conclusion: Translocation was found to be the most common structural anomaly in AML. We observed translocation t(8;21) in 9.09% cases. Other translocation was t(9;22) which was found in 9.09% cases.t(9;11) was observed in 9.09% cases in our study. t(15;17) was noted in 4.54% case which was also noted by previous authors. In AML t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16) has good prognosis, intermediate prognosis is seen in abnormal 11q23, while del5q), abnormal 3q, complex cytogenetic had poor prognosis.