ЕКОНОМІЧНИЙ ТА СОЦІАЛЬНИЙ СТАН РОБІТНИКІВ ХАРКІВСЬКОГО ПАРОВОЗОБУДІВНОГО ЗАВОДУ на рубежі ХІХ – ХХ ст.
Authors: Дьякова О. В.
Number of views: 233
У статті висвітлюється рівень добробуту робітників Харківського паровозобудівного заводу. Проаналі-
зовані зарплатня робітників і ціна на продукти харчування того часу. Відзначається, що при будівництві заво-
ду відразу створювалась і соціальна інфраструктура для працівників підприємства.
В статье освещается уровень благосостояния рабочих Харьковского паровозостроительного завода.
Проанализированы зарплаты рабочих и цены на продукты, что показывает о хорошем благосостоянии людей.
При строительстве завода сразу же создавалась социальная инфраструктура: жилые дома, больница, столо-
вая, кулинария, магазин. Для досуга сотрудников со временем были созданы такие учреждения, как Дом рабо-
чих и стадион, где работали кружки по интересам, а также учебные заведения.
In the late nineteenth – early twentieth century in Ukraine is rapidly developing industry, which leads to the formation
of the interlayer proletarians. The increase of the working class in the late nineteenth century leads to their
struggle for better conditions of their lives and work.
In the Soviet and modern Ukrainian historiography of this discipline unilaterally. The emphasis is on ruthless exploitation
of people and low wages. Social infrastructure is not considered.
The purpose of this article is to highlight the economic and social living conditions of the proletarians on the example
of Kharkov locomotive factory (hereafter KlF).
This enterprise since its establishment and until today remains one of the important enterprises of Ukraine (now it
is an Malysheva engineering factory). Its construction began in 1895, and in late 1897, the factory began to produce
The workers were divided into two categories: labourers and artisans. Besides, the factory employed students.
The workday was 10 hours. on the day. From specialty dependent wage worker. Among the artisans were the
highest paid shoppers in the forge (5 rubles 47 kopecks), and the least – sidelniki in copper smelting (80 kop.); among
laborers – the biggest payoff in instrumental (CPC 95), and lowest in blacksmithing (66 CPC); among his students was
the biggest in the tool shop (1 BEF.), the smallest of the forge (CPC 34). The company was often used naderman work.
At first she paid as and normalized, but later she began to pay more.
Every worker was insured against injury or death during operation. But the administration was slow to pay funds.
Therefore, in order to help their comrades, the workers organized a different mutual Fund.
In pre-revolutionary Russia there was a system of fines for misconduct. At the Kharkov locomotive plant was fined
for possession of alcoholic beverages; for disobedience, untimely execution of the order; if it is clear that the worker
often leaves the table for conversations with other workers, etc; for Smoking near storage legkobetonnye substances offenders are immediately released from work.
Therefore, a disciplined work paid on his salary can support a family of four (he, his wife and two children).
Also in the historical literature it was noted that the workers lived in barracks in unsanitary conditions and the only
entertainment for them were the tavern and drunken fights. However, already from the beginning of construction of
the enterprise, his administration, and later the factory workers, the Kharkov intelligentsia cared about the level of cultural
development of the proletariat.
In parallel with the construction of industrial premises were erected dwelling house, a hostel for 100 places. The
construction of housing was carried out in subsequent years. The apartment stood a well-functioning workers. Also,
when the plant operated dining, cooking, store and hospital.
Great attention to the administration and the employees paid on the education level of ordinary workers. In 1905
at the request of workers at plant a school was opened. Tuition was paid, however, the best students studied at the expense
of the plant.
Feeling the need in 1909 the factory workers on own funds (and funds from local merchants and entrepreneurs)
have built a work house (the prototype of the factory's Palace of culture).
However, despite the rosy picture, provozovny always tried to improve their living and working, referring to the
administration or raising riots.
So, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the situation of workers was more or less decent and to a
certain extent depended on the personality: wanted or not wanted people to work well, to do their cultural and intellectual
growth, to fight for their rights and to improve the social situation.