International Education Research (IER) is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal. The IER aims to inform educational researchers as well as educators, administrators and policymakers about issues of contemporary concern in education. This journal is published quarterly by the Science and Education Centre of North America in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. International Education Research seeks to publish original research papers, case reports, and review articles. It reports on developments in the field of education (primary, secondary, tertiary, and life-long) and its scope embraces all fields of education and training.