The objective of the research was to determine the exposure to particulate material in the textil area of a manufacturing company of linens and duvets, where it is carried out measurements of particulate material in respirable fraction 2.5 μg/m3. The same were made through the use of the equipment of direct reading and the results are compared with the value set limit. The study found that in the operation with the overlock machines is where there is a greater amount of particulate matter getting the maximum value in the entire production plant of 244 μg/m³, and a lower value machine in the bender with a value of 9 μg/m³ During the course of the investigation, it wanted to know the perception of the employees, to do this a survey was administered in a manner that takes first-hand the opinion with regard to the work. Among the results is that the staff is aware that there is particulate matter and if you have had respiratory complaints, indicate that the organization presents a great deal of commitment to the security and they also are involved in the tasks.
This research focusses on characterizing the sick building syndrome (SBS) on three buildings of the Engineering Sciences Faculty, at the Occidental Campus of the Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial. By means of a comparative analysis between the prevalence result obtained within the research work and a comparison with the allowable levels according to NTP290 Spanish Code, determination was made that, in effect SBS exists in the studied buildings. The physical risk questionnaire was applied to the universe of studied people (N=64). Based on the results and in accordance to the prevalence appraisal, a proposal was formulated for the remediation of the involved working conditions on the studied buildings. This research will serve as an institutional reference for the building quality indicator of the University facilities and also for future researches.
This paper presents the oil deposit and operational variables that influence the implementation of the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process for the Production of Heavy and Extra-heavy Crude Oil. This process consists of drilling two parallel horizontal wells, one above the other, where the upper well is used for steam injection and the lower well is used for production. The efficiency of the process is greatly affected by the deposit and operating parameters (vertical spacing of wells, injection pressure, preheating period, among others). Furthermore, the prediction of the maximum rate of oil extraction was determined using an example with currently available real data of Block 20 of the Pungarayacu Field.
In this work is reported an initiative to implement 24 assembly laboratories for General Physics, Applied Physics and Heat and Electromagnetism, in the premises of the Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial (Santo Domingo, Ecuador). For this purpose three student memoires where designed and performed with unused, stored equipment, plus some additional material coming from students contribution. Each practice was set up and validated for teaching purposes with the methods of calculation errors and linear regression. This work saved the institution $16,369.57 compared with the cost of buying a commercial set for the laboratory.
Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi) consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Estatal Amazónica and bromatológics and microbiological analyzes to determine the quality of the raw material and products are made in laboratory of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences of the Universidad Central del Ecuador. As supplements sensory tests and studies Benefit / Cost performed. The results show the variation of 10% pulp Sacha Inchi as the most recommended for use in industry.
An empirical rule is proposed for determining the sample size n to be taken depending on the lot produced size N for a single attributes sampling under normal inspection based on the standards COVENIN 3133-1: 2001 and MIL-STD-105E; also, the acceptance number c for a given level of acceptable quality was calculated, and the corresponding operating characteristic curves were constructed. Two potential regression equations were obtained for calculation of sample size to fit R2 of 99.91% and 99.38% for lot sizes N≤666 and N>666, respectively, in addition, a sampling plan was designed for a lot size of 176,000 units with an acceptable level of quality of 0.65% defectives units. The proposed sampling plan presented a smaller sample size (n=560) than the standard (n=800), with operating characteristic curve very similar to the closest sampling plan recommended by the standard (n=500). The application of the empirical approach is recommended for the design of cheaper sampling plans which in turn are consonant with the rules COVENIN 3133-1: 2001 and MIL-STD-105E
This work recreates a proposal to evaluate the usage of different books categories in a university library. The model employs a mechanism to carry out usage statistics and a mechanism to carry out discovering association rules, from use data stored in the library system. Usage statistics are computed based on the degree of importance, or relevance, with respect to an area of knowledge, and association rules provide support to determine the final use of the various categories. In the process we take into account that stored data correspond to books requested on loan, renewal or consultation. The study presents knowledge discovery in data, aiming to enhance the management of a university library
Software development is an activity, inherently collaborative; usually development teams have members located in different places, talking different languages and with another culture. Therefore, knowledge about helping tools is necessary. These tools could be helpful in the whole process of software development, and mainly in the coding stage. This paper shows new perspectives in collaborative software development, its relevance; then, shows a set of important tools. They include plugins and web-based tools. A set of important features and a comparison are shown. This information would be helpful if you are thinking about build or use one.
The current research suggests that using of agile methodologies in conjunction with open source software tools can improve productivity, reduce costs and optimize resources in the process of software development, and helps improve user satisfaction due to implementation of excellent quality software. The following analysis shows the most important variables for the successful implementation of IT development projects and their relation with the use of traditional and agile software development methodologies.
The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador) where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%). Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L) by 52%.
The continuous improvement of manufacturing processes is critical to achieve optimum levels of productivity, quality and cut production of components and products. This research aims to determine the cutting tool flank wearing progression, during a high speed dry turning, for AISI 316L steel parts. Experimental data were acquired using two cutting feed levels, two material levels, three cutting speeds, and four principal cutting times. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure and analyze the wear of the cutting tools. Results were compared using analysis of variance and multiple regression for describing the relation between the variables used in the study. The analysis showed that the three layers coating insert did not exceed the end of life wearing criterion, while the one layer insert suffered a catastrophic wearing at the highest cutting speed. It was found that a relation exists between the experimental data and the predicted values for flank wear with a general average error of 4.1182%.
In the Rio Grande basin, the Chone Multi-Purpose dam (PMCH) is built with an investment of approximately $66 million, to irrigate over 7000ha. The marked differences in precipitation could impair the quality of water; therefore the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the ions and their location in the graph: relationship of ions and mechanisms of chemical processes, water behavior and trend setting. The study was a non-experimental, cross-sectional and descriptive research. 111 samples were collected in the group of channels that form the Rio Grande basin, in 2013 and 2014 during times of drought and rain. The parameters were measured in the sample anions and cations. The processes that control the chemistry of surface water in the studied area during the rainy season have a predisposition to mineralization in equilibrium with rocks. However, in the time of drought, water movement was observed towards the area where evaporation with respect to precipitation predominates, increasing the inorganic chemistry of the waters that, in time, could be extended.
In this research a mathematical model to approach the process of creating software development teams as a discrete multi-objective problem is proposed. The objectives considered are the level of competition and the level of utilization of professionals in the team. Given the complexity of the problem search space, the application of an approximate optimization method is proposed. Specifically, the genetic algorithm NSGA-II based on the concept of Pareto dominance was selected. This method was applied in six different scenarios in order to analyze the quality of the obtained solutions. In general we can say that the method is efficient and gets solutions (assignments) of high quality.
In this research, 108 samples were analyzed (54 of coriander and 54 of parsley). These samples were obtained under a random method in three distribution spots on each of the markets around the north of the city of Quito. Total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC) were detected. The average of TC value for coriander was 5.09 log UFC/g and 6.39 log UFC/g for parsley. Values of 607.0 NMP/g for F for the market #1, 597.7NMP/g for the market # 2, and 474.2 NMP/g for the market # 3 were found. The 23.1% of the parsley samples presented positive recounts for Escherichia coli while for the coriander the 14.8% of the samples were positive for this bacterium. The presence of enteric indicators (TC, FC, and EC) was independent from the market and the distribution point which indicates a high contamination level and demonstrates the necessity of a microbiologic control on the irrigation system, farming, transport and hygienic conditions of handlers in order to assure the quality of the leafy vegetables, is recommended to set local norms to evaluate the microbiological quality of these foods.
A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T3 = 100 %. Sensory acceptability of treatments was performed. There were no statistically significant differences. Treatment T3 with highest score was chosen as the best treatment. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization was performed for T3 treatment and for a treatment which didn’t have in its formulation avocado oil, T0 treatment. T0. Protein was 13.23% in T0 and 12.56% in T3. Total fat, SFA and PUFA in T3 were reduced in 3.7%, 5.24% and 2.53% respectively. MUFA showed an increase of 3.51% in T3. Trans acids was 0% for both treatments. The results obtained were located within the acceptable range established in the NTE (INEN) 1338:12.
The scientific interest in climate change allowed to uncover evidence demonstrating a general warming trend caused by human activities. Facts such as rising sea levels, extreme weather events and retreat of glaciers, are indicators of the presence of alterations of normal weather patterns. In Ecuador, the Antisana is a stratovolcano of strategic importance affecting the climate of the region, in the functioning of the surrounding ecosystems. It is also a reserve of water for the population of the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ). The glaciers of the tropical volcano are also suffering the effects of global warming. Its decline over time is of concern and should be analyzed. The present research work performed a spatial and temporal study based on historical series of aerial photographs taken between 1956 and 2011, through geo-processing capabilities of geographic information systems (GIS). The results show a significant decrease in the glaciers of the Antisana Volcano and significant changes in the surrounding local ecological formations.
This work evaluated the business risk change of 20 companies included on the sustainable index of the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV). The unlevered beta coefficient was used for this analysis. Two periods were compared: the one before, and the one after including the companies on the index. For each of the 20 companies it was used financial information, stocks closing prices and the stock market index value, over a period of 234 weeks. Then, considering the two periods, the statistical difference between the unlevered beta coefficient averages was calculated. Finally, a hypothesis proof was made to evaluate the business risk change. It was found that for 12 out of the 20 companies, the unlevered beta coefficient suffered a reduction. The findings suggest that it is not enough for the companies to certify as sustainable in order to reduce its business risk.
The proliferation of new devices to detect human movements has produced an increase in the use of interfaces based on touchless hand gestures. These kind of applications may also be used in classrooms. Although a lot of studies have been carried out, most of them are not focused on classrooms. Therefore, this paper presents a bibliographic review about related studies with the aim of organizing and relating them to the interface design for this type of scenario. This review discusses some related applications, how gestures performed by users are recognized, design aspects to consider, and some evaluation methods for this interaction style. Thus, this work may be a reference guide to both researchers and software designers to develop and use such applications in classrooms.
The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu) and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod) were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25%) were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.
Enterprise Architecture (EA) is conceived nowadays as an essential management activity to visualize and evaluate the future direction of a company. The objective of this paper is to make a literature review on EA to evaluate its role as management tool. It is also explained how EA can fulfill two fundamental purposes, first as a tool for assessing the current situation (self-assessment) of an organization; second as a tool to model and simulate future scenarios that allow better decision making for the restructuration and development of improvement plans. Furthermore an analysis is made of the integration possibilities of EA with other business management methodologies, as balanced score card (BSC) and the model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). As the result a management framework is presented, which includes the required elements to achieve excellence and quality standards in organizations.
In this paper the presence of electric charge in two insulation of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) in medium voltage cables was compared using the technique of Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC). Antioxidant in solid form was added to one of the insulation, and in liquid form to the other. By analyzing the TSDC measures we verified that the use of liquid antioxidant is better because the solid antioxidant creates defects that act as centers for trapping the space charge. In these centers the ionized charge, by the combined effect of temperature and electric field, is accumulated in the insulation, in addition to the charge injected from the semiconductor electrodes by the effect of high fields.
The province of Bolivar is located in the central-west region of Ecuador. The main beverages produced are spirits and chichas; among them “rice chicha”. In a first stage, samples of rice chicha (at points of sale) from different producers of this province were evaluated; microbial counts and physicochemical analyzes were performed. In the second stage, the most representative enterobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were isolated form “rice chicha” during three phases of the elaboration process: initial, fermentative and final. For all microorganisms, macroscopic and microscopic descriptions were performed. The identification of enterobacteria and lactic acid bacteria was carried out with biochemical tests, for mold a microscopic identification was applied by staining with lactophenol blue solution and for yeast the APIC AUX 20 kit was used. Count values in average were 2.7 and 2.5 log CFU / ml of total coliforms and enterobacteria, 1.8 log CFU / ml of lactic acid bacteria and 2.5 log CFU / ml for yeasts and molds. During the three fermentation phases the most representative species were partially identified: 13 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, 9 strains of lactic acid bacteria, 15 strains of mold and 6 strains of yeast.
One of the largest areas of the food industry is the production of snacks, but these have generally an inadequate nutritional profile in healthy eating. The vacuum frying technology is presented as a clear option processing for the development of new products and existing ones. This review article presents the advantages of using technology in Vacuum frying different types of food, especially in relation to the contents of some micronutrients and fat. They also mention the work done in Ecuador, especially in local products.
World energy matrix is changing due to the increase of energy consumption in the last years. Installation of unconventional renewable energy plants in many countries has become a solution to this event. Integration of this type of energy to the electric network causes interest in the study of phenomena that affects energy production. This document is a review of concepts and events occurring on energy quality and how they interact in a wind farm. The efficiency of wind turbines is affected by many factors, the most outstanding are: substations activities and weather issues such as wind gusts, which causes variations in the power curve. Constant monitoring on electric systems and data processing offers a high potential in improving the process of production and distribution of energy.
This work focuses on developing a fast coral reef detector, which is used for an autonomous underwater vehicle, AUV. A fast detection secures the AUV stabilization respect to an area of reef as fast as possible, and prevents devastating collisions. We use the algorithm of Purser et al. (2009) because of its precision. This detector has two parts: feature extraction that uses Gabor Wavelet filters, and feature classification that uses machine learning based on Neural Networks. Due to the extensive time of the Neural Networks, we exchange for a classification algorithm based on Decision Trees. We use a database of 621 images of coral reef in Belize (110 images for training and 511 images for testing). We implement the bank of Gabor Wavelets filters using C++ and the OpenCV library. We compare the accuracy and running time of 9 machine learning algorithms, whose result was the selection of the Decision Trees algorithm. Our coral detector performs 70ms of running time in comparison to 22s executed by the algorithm of Purser et al. (2009).
Sweeteners are compounds that give the sweet taste to foods, drinks and drugs. Aspartame is one of the most used today; its metabolism produces phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The purpose of this research was to review the scientific literature about the levels of consumption considered safe, toxicology and epidemiological data of aspartame. The European Parliament approved it as a food additive in 1994 and the FDA did it in 1996. Joint FAO / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and FDA set the Acceptable Daily Intake at 40 and 50 mg / kg bw / day, respectively. The sweetener and its degradation products have been evaluated for over 30 years with the involvement of numerous international organizations. However, there is still controversy over its use because there are researches whose results attribute to it neuropsychiatric side effects, brain tumors, carcinogenic properties for different organs, damage to the fetus during pregnancy, development of lymphomas and leukemia, while other researchers say their use is harmless to humans if consumption is less than the Acceptable Daily Intake. It is not recommended for people with phenylketonuria and pregnant women.
The relationship between color development with anthocyanins and chlorophyll content at different stages of maturity of mortiño (Vaccinum floribundum) was studied. The fruits were harvested by surface color from 100% green to 100% black. The color scale was measured according to CIE L* a* b* and color difference (∆E) was determined. The anthocyanin and chlorophyll content was performed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The following scale was used to establish the stage of maturity: (1) green, (2) green/pink, (3) pink, (4) pink/black and (5) black; It was observed that increasing the maturation stage, the brightness and color saturation decrease. Results showed positive values of a* and negative of b* for maturity stages 3, 4 and 5 (red and blue); and negative values of a * and positive of b * for states 1 and 2 (green and yellow). Smallest differences in color (∆E) were found between states 4 and 5. Among the states 1 and 5 was evident a decreased of 0,052 mg/g in chlorophyll content and an increase of 13700mg/kg in anthocyanins. The degree of maturity of the fruit has a direct relationship between the color tone and content of components with antioxidant activity constituting a precedent for future researches and its use of this fruit in different stages of maturity.
The environment is still affected by the inappropriate use of organic matter waste, but a culture of recycling and reuse has been promoted in Ecuador to reduce carbon footprint. The composting, a technique to digest organic matter, which traditionally takes 16-24 weeks, is still inefficient to use. Therefore, this paper concerns the optimization of the composting process in both quality and production time. The variables studied were: type of waste (fruits and vegetables) and type of bioaccelerator (yeast and indigenous microorganisms). By using a full factorial random design 22, a quality compost was obtained in 7 weeks of processing. Quality factors as temperature, density, moisture content, pH and carbon-nitrogen ratio allowed the best conditions for composting in the San Gabriel del Baba community (Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador). As a result of this study, a mathematical surface model which explains the relationship between the temperature and the digestion time of organic matter was obtained.
In this paper a review and analysis of the major theories and models that address the prediction of corporate bankruptcy and insolvency is made. Neural networks are a tool of most recent appearance, although in recent years have received considerable attention from the academic and professional world, and have started to be implemented in different models testing organizations insolvency based on neural computation. The purpose of this paper is to yield evidence of the usefulness of Artificial Neural Networks in the problem of bankruptcy prediction insolence or so compare its predictive ability with the methods commonly used in that context. The findings suggest that high predictive capabilities can be achieved using artificial neural networks, with qualitative and quantitative variables.