The relationship between different kinds of drinking water in Saudi Arabia with the incidence of renal diseases
Authors: Waleed S. Mohamed, Adnan A. Alsulaimani, Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, Ibrahim Abdelmageed Ginawi and Ayman Ahmed Kosba
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Water purity and the mineral content are important for human health. This study aimed to determine the quality of tap water and determined if any has renal health hazards. Tap water samples were brought from 5 regions of Hail. All samples were subjected to physical examination, including electrical conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical analysis including free chlorine, fluoride, iron, sulfate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness and alkalinity with trace element analysis (uranium, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, arsenic, and selenium). Microbiological and cytological examinations were done. No microbiological contamination was detected. Increased EC and TDS in Alkhuta and Qnaa with high fluoride, calcium and total water hardens. High pH value was found in Hail, Ugda and Twaran, with high water turbidity in Twaran. Magnesium level was high in Alkhuta, Qnaa and Ugda with low level in Hail. Total water alkalinity was high in Qnaa. 65% of patients had urinary symptoms. 27% of patients had calcium oxalate crystals, 45% had uric acid crystals and 36% had urate crystals. 41% of patients had bacteriurea, while 5% had yeast. Utrasonography (US) revealed renal gravels (39%), renal stones (9%), cyst (15%), nephrosis (2%), hydronephrosis (1%) and renal mass (1%). In conclusion, all sample results were within the standard level. Alkhuta and Qnaa revealed high EC, TDS, fluoride, nitrate, calcium, and total hardness and higher degree of alkalinity in Qnaa with high prevalence of renal gravels and stones in both areas. Ugda samples revealed high pH, nitrate and uranium with patients had high urine calcium oxalate, uric acid and bacterurea. Twaran samples revealed a high pH and turbidity with high calcium oxalate crystals and prevalent of renal gravels with one case of hydronephrosis. Hail samples revealed low calcium and magnesium levels.
Keywords: Drinking water, quality guidelines, renal diseases, Saudi Arabia.