Recent Research Questions of Ecological Aspects of the Interaction of the Organism and the Environment
Authors: Evstropov V., Trushkova E., Nikhayeva A.
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For a single organism, the characteristics of levels of organization of living matter are the following: moleculargene, supramolecular, cellular, tissular, and organ ones. Organismic, population-species, and biocenotic levels of organization of living matter are characteristic of a set of organisms. Organisms can also act as an environmental factor. Nanobacteria, widely distributed in environmental compartments (in particular in water), can initiate various diseases in humans and are a new environmental factor (a bioindicator of ecological problems in the environment). The presence of organisms of some other species (staphylo-cocci, salmonella, ETEC) in surface waters has also unfavorable nature and is a criterion of sanitary-hygienic assessment of the epidemic hazard of these waters, testifying to the unfavorable environmental situation. Moreover, vice versa, organisms (biota) can clean and heal water bodies thanks to the processes of phytoremediation, bioremediation and zoore-mediation. The environment is considered as a complex of natural bodies and phenomena with which the body is in direct or indirect relationships, as part of nature, surrounding a living organism and having a direct or indirect effect on its state and functioning (growth, development, survival, reproduction, etc.) The habitat is a combination of objects, phenomena and environmental factors that determines the living conditions of living creatures, natural conditions in all the same habitats. According to the qualitative specificity of the complexes of conditions providing an opportunity for life, they distinguish living environments mastered by living organisms: water, land (air-ground living environment), soil and organism (for parasites and symbionts). Moreover, organisms exist in one or more environments of life. Organisms living in the internal environment of the host organism (blood, lymph, tissue) underwent significant adaptation and protective modifications: co-adaptation of the parasite and the host, symbionts to each other, the formation of the parasite`s protection against digestion by the host and the system of local fixation in the environment, strengthening sexual reproduction, reduction of vision and digestive system, synchronization of biorhythms with biorhythms of the host organism. There are two strategies for the development of living creatures: the r-strategy, which implies rapid reproduction and short life, and the k-strategy, which is characterized by a low rate of reproduction and long life. In accordance with the r-strategy, the population develops in adverse environmental conditions, but the frequent generational changes that occur at the same time contribute to the consolidation of useful mutations that allow the most successful resistance to adverse effects.