Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages
Authors: Eun-Jin Yang, Ji-Young Moon, Sang Suk Kim, Kyong-Wol Yang, Wook Jae Lee, Nam Ho Lee, Chang-Gu Hyun
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Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW
264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.
Methods: Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds,
Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P.
cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were
screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide
(NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).
Results: Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and
G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43,
32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera,
P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a
concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO
synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW
264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released
into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and
G. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and
74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL,
respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and
expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/
mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G.
Conclusions: Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic
applications for inflammatory responses.