EL ROL DE ENFERMERÍA EN LOS SERVICIOS DE EMERGENCIAS MÉDICAS
Authors: Estivill Alberich, J
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The word ambulance originates from the French root “ambulant” which means “to walk”. The concept of ambulance, has its origin in the military field, when Larrey, chief of surgery of Napoleon Bonaparte’s Guard, created for his army the so-called “ambulances volantes”, which were carriages equipped for transport and emergency treatment of wounded in combat.
With the globalization of the last 30 years, various expanding regions experienced accelerated economic and social growth, which led to a greater need for health systems caused mainly by urban expansion and demographic changes in citizenship. This culminates in the need to transfer the medical services from the health centers to the place where the incident occurred, thus giving rise to the Emergency Medical Services. This pre-hospital process begins with an initial alert that is usually activated by the citizen through of a telephone call, which is referred to a coordination center that, likewise, manages the dispatch of the most appropriate emergency services according to the priority of the emergency.
Currently, two different models of out-of-hospital assistance in medical emergencies can be identified: The North American model and the French model, which respectively described as “scoop and run” and “stay and play”.
In Spain there are several types of medical transportation, each of which is suitable for a specific type of patient, depending on their medical condition and the team of healthcare professionals needed to provide the service. Within type C ambulances, there are Advanced Practice Nursing Support Units that have been on the rise for some time and, where the nurse is he head of the unit. Its purpose is to provide home care for urgent care demands to attend minor acute and chronic illnesses. These units have shown to be highly effective and efficient, provide versatility, profitability, improve the quality of care and contribute to match the healthcare response according to demand, thus optimizing available resources. With all this, unnecessary, repeated and avoidable visits to emergency hospital services are avoided, preventing the collapse of the health system.
The role of ambulance services has evolved over the last three decades, to become an important community resource integrated in the health care system which, along with the creation of this new role of nursing in out-of-hospital care, marks a point and part in the evolution and development of Emergency Medical Services.