Emerging role of Stem cells of dental origin in dentistry -A Review
Authors: Ajay Kumar Kapoor, Seema Thakur, Parul Singhal, Cheranjeevi Jayam.
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In recent years, the greatest findings show that stem cells have been used to treat several diseases. Studies conducted with stem cells highly interest the scientific field due to their ability in stimulating tissue regeneration and, as a consequence, presenting many therapeutic perspectives. Such facts enable stem cells to be used in different dental procedures of which aim is to recover the quality of patients’ oral health.
Stem cells are primordial cells that can differentiate and regenerate failing cells in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. Till date, five major human dental stem cells have been isolated and characterized: Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), and dental follicle progenitor cells (DFPCs). These post-natal populations possesses mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) qualities, with the capability for multiline age differentiation potential and self-renewal. The dental stem cells are derived and isolated from specialized tissue with potent capacities to differentiate into osteogenic, neurogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, odontogenic cells.
For this review article we performed a search on PubMed, Medline Plus, Science Direct, google scholar, science direct etc for all English-language articles published in the last 10 years. We used the keywords were "adult stem cells", “dental stem cells, “dental stem cells banking”, “stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)”.
The aim of this review is to give outline of the stem cell types being investigated in the dental field including their tissue sources, properties, differentiation potential, and assessment of their advantages for tissue engineering.