Against the background of Poe’s several allegations of plagiarism against a host of his contemporaries, notably Hawthorne, and the resulting counter allegations broadly hinting at Poe’s own acts of plagiary, presumably to Poe’s great delight, this paper posits that Poe’s accusations were not an attempt to distract his readers from his own plagiary but rather a deliberate attempt to focus attention on it. An in-depth analysis of Ligeia reveals how Poe, the quintessential parodist, uses different devices and techniques to throw clues, as it were, at the few Legrands and Dupins among his audience in the hope that this would enable them to unravel his cryptograms and ciphers and thus savour the satiric undercurrent of meaning in his tales.
There was a time when the teacher's role was to pass down to the younger generation - the knowledge, experiences and mythology of a slowly evolving society. The pace of change in contemporary society has made this role redundant. The modern teacher must be, among other things, a change-agent. It does not matter whether one is addressing the situation in a developing or an industrialized nation, the problem remains the same. What are the new dimensions of his / her role, and how is the teacher to be trained to fulfill that role.
In examining the changing role of the teacher we need to see the changes as being a response to, and an attempt to confront, the pressures of a society undergoing constant transition. Thus the demand for qualified and quality teachers has been continuously on the increase the world over. It is thus necessary that quality concern is explicit in every aspect of teacher education programs.
This paper discusses Chinua Achebe’s attempt to confront the historical and spiritual roots of Africa's crisis. The author, one of Africa's greatest intellectual giants was consistent in courageously criticizing the misrule on the continent for decades, stances which put his life at risk and forced him to flee his native country. His great disappointment manifests itself in his last and latest book “There was a Country-A personal History of Biafra”. Achebe mourns Biafra, but his anger is directed at the failures of Nigeria. This book is a fascinating and gripping memoir of Biafra where he relates his experience of the war, both as he lived it and how he came to understand it. The end of Biafra didn't bring an end to the pogroms against the Igbo, nor to Nigeria's problems. He has also offered a solution to resolve these problems, by invoking the Negritude embedded in the mbari of his own Igbo culture, which emphasizes mutual respect and coexistence. He declares that the solutions to Africa's problems can be found in Africa—her bosom, her humanity—and that Africans must rebuild their own indigenous institutions.
The recent macroeconomic movements in the economy of Macedonia, in a monetary aspect, are relatively affordable. The maintenance of macroeconomic stability and the establishment of economic growth of sustainable basis, as well as the retention of coordinated fiscal and monetary politics, remains imperative even in the following period. In the period to come, macroeconomic politics will focus on the further improvement of business environment, tax and customs policy of direct foreign investments and the stimulation of investment activity, as well as human capital development and state economic infrastructure, which are among the main economic criteria for the existence of functional trade. Such a policy to follow represents warranty for stable economic growth in the Republic of Macedonia through the stable level of public debt and the provident level of budgetary deficit in combination with stable exchange rate. Such an economic recuperation continues even in the first and second quarter, whereupon GDP has attained growth, while attains of the third and fourth quarter instruct or suggest keeping/retention of the economy in the zone of solid annual growth commensurate the designed.
In this research paper we will present macroeconomic movements, domestic production data according to the productive method in the real sectors for the last two periods.
Verse-ordination is one of the traditional genre of Kazakh poetry. If it is true that the historical emergence, formation and development of these poems-ordination we can not fail to note that the study of the literary heritage of the land of poets Syr as the main authors of these poems is the true generated nowadays trend of the times. And therefore consider analysis on such verses is right for a national literature and art. Especially considering that the study of modern literature from a historical and theoretical point of view, taking into account national traditions bearing fruit.
Analysis of Robert Hayden’s (1913-1980) poems revealed the significant place history and symbolism occupied in his poems. The present study aimed to explore the historical elements and the pervasive sense of the past in Hayden’s Angle of Ascent (1975). Angle of Ascent showed Hayden’s interest in Afro-American history since he knew that it was misrepresented and distorted and hence it was imperative for him to correct the misconceptions surrounding it. Angle of Ascent also re-enacted the collaboration of Hayden’s character as a symbolist and an historian and emphasised the remarkable fertility of their union as the bipolar extremes of his unique poetic genius. Symbolism in Hayden’s poems allowed him to reinforce various meanings using symbols to show different meanings. Hayden’s poetry also made it clear that since the horrible actualities of life can realise their true meaning in the higher order of spirit, the transcendent realm should reveal a meaning to man as long as it is materialised in his own experience.
Traditional medicinal plants survey was carried out to collect the information about the medicinal plants found in Southern Pachchamalais and utilized by the ethinic people of Study area. The intensive and extensive ethno botanical fields studies have resulted in the collection of 40 medicinal plant species belonging to 38 genera distributed in 29 families, which are used in traditional health care system are described under this study and also attempted to find out the medicines prepared out of these medicinal plants, forms of medicine and their matching ailments. In this communication, the information obtained from the local people was compared with the literatures on ethnobotanical studies of India. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, Jaundice, diabetes, wounds and rheumatism. The medicinal plants used by the people are arranged alphabetically, and followed by their botanical name, family name, local name(s), part(s) used, mode of preparation and their corresponding diseases.
This paper examines cultural identity through proverbs especially, by comparing and contrasting proverbs in Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo. Cultural background of the three regional languages in Nigeria will be explored by analysing verbal expressions in their respective native languages. Elements such as word choice, imagery and tone will be revealing factors of traditions, values, and cultural traits. The significance of this study lies in the fact that national identities can be better understood by the comparison and contrast of these popular expressions. It was discovered that proverbs bring out the uniqueness of a people and also teach tolerance, honesty, hard work and sense of self-worth among Nigerian people. It is recommended that the study of proverbs should be given prominence in the curriculum of studies for schools and universities in Nigeria because Proverbs can unite the country and make Nigeria a peaceful nation.
Escaping into the world of imagination is an easy way to forget the present pains of life. John Keats, the most romantic among romantics wants to get free from the present pains of life and searches beauty in the world of imagination. To Keats, beauty lies in truth and anything true is beautiful. He loves nature and his touch transforms everything into beauty. He creates an imaginary world of dream where one can forget the harsh realities of life. But one has to come back and face the real world and be in his senses. We seek pleasure and find its true meaning in this world rather than escaping. So, the question arises does the escaping into the world give real pleasure or accepting the reality of life is the best way of getting beauty and pleasure. This article tries to persuade Keats’s aphorism through some of his famous odes and shows Keats’s way to escape into the world of imagination and search for beauty. At the same time, it also aims at eliminating the pessimistic approach and accepts the truth of real life after comparing the fake endeavor to escape.
Racism involves the belief in racial differences, which acts as a justification for non- equal treatment of members of the race. The term is commonly used negatively and is usually associated with race – based prejudice. Racism is usually defined as views, practices and actions reflecting the belief that humanity is divided into distinct biological groups called races and that members of a certain race share certain attributes which make that group as a whole less desirable, more desirable, inferior or superior. In The Bluest Eye Toni Morrison, the novelist has created a racialized community. She has created a dualistic tale of the oppressors and the oppressed. The novel exposed or illustrates how the racism which exists within the African American community can be seen as an effect of the oppression and racism its members have been subjected to by the Whites and their protest against it.
Educational planning is important as it can tackle those areas where immediate reform is needed. It can provide future educational infrastructure to those who are not yet in the coverage area of education. One such area before the educational planning is the child labourer education. Child labour is a threat for the nation and for the state. They are out of the scenario of universalization of primary education and fall under heavy dropout rates. There are national policies for child labour where special school for them was organized with monthly stripen of 100 rps. In Assam there are four districts under these schemes, but other districts are not yet followed. Overall education towards this child labour is not an easy task to deal with as their parents are from poverty striven family and so accept this child as assets. As a result they send these children to work instead of school. They believe that education will give them nothing but it will create a loss in time where the child can earn money outside. Therefore they are forbidden from the basic right to education. That is why educational planning should also be conscious to deal with the problem by catching its basic problems, and try to change the mind set of this people. This should be located soon otherwise we will lose our future citizen indulge in illiteracy. This paper attempts to find out whether there is any such planning is available for this child or not and also tries to show some future prospects which can be taken under consideration.
Describes the usage of library resources by 47 students of the library and information science of Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. Survey method was used for the purpose. It was found that 68.08% students visit the library for reading text books.87.23% students were aware about the photocopy service, while 65.95% students use the internet for educational purpose.51.06% students face the problem while using the library catalogue and 61.7% ask for help to the teacher in using the library.25.53% students rated reading area as very good. Students need proper orientation in the use of library resources.
Human beings have been expressing their complex and abstract feelings or emotions through non verbal forms of communication. Dance is one of the greatest and special forms of non verbal communication. In dance, the human body is used as a medium or instrument which transforms itself from the realm of movement to the realm of meaning. This paper is an attempt to focus on dance as not only a tool of non verbal communication but also a tool of conveying a wide range of stories, emotions, feelings, etc. symbolically and didactically.
The paper discussed the importance of language in human existence. It asserted that the basic need of human interaction at both individual and collective levels was satisfied through language. Culture, although a familiar word, was often misunderstood and misused. The paper, consequently, delved into what culture was all about. The close relationship between language and culture was highlighted. The profusion of languages in the African continent was seen by the paper as problematic. African colonial experience and the current globalization process militated against evolving effective language policy and language planning in Africa. The paper contented that the militating factors notwithstanding, Africa was in dire need of a virile language policy. Languages being carriers of culture, the policy should appreciate the need for the protection and promotion of African cultural values through the indigenous languages. Linguistic human rights which included the practical ability of an individual to use his own language in all human interactions should be fully appreciated as a foundational element for democratization processes. In conclusion, the paper warned against the lopsided development in favour of science and technology in African countries. A commensurate attention should be given to the development of the language resources in the continent.
Article 15 of the constitution of India lays down a guarantee to every citizen that consists of ‘No discrimination or any ground only of religion race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of these. Article 15 (3) provides that for women and children special provision can be made by the state, women empowerment enjoys constitutional protection of this Article 15 (3). Article 39 (a) (d) and (e) lay down certain principles of policy that are to be followed by State. Men and Women citizens shall enjoy equal right to an adequate means of livelihood. There shall be equal pay for equal work for both men and women and that the health and strength of worker’s men and women shall not be abused. Article 42 provides for just and humane condition of work and maternity relief. Article 44 also provides that ‘The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India’.
In a patriarchal male-dominated society it is usually the man who exercises all power and it is under his guidance and directions that a woman is expected to act and follow. But today’s modern women as described by Shobha De in her novels, are well aware of the fact that it’s a man’s world and he is more powerful because he is mater since a long time. But they also knew that this powerful creature (man) has also a weakness and that is woman. Therefore, for their survival and making herself economically powerful, women have learned the art of using their exquisiteness as their weapon. From ancient time women are considered as inferior and since they are oppressed from birth. The present article describes the protagonists of Shobha De who learn the weakness of men to redeem to their own advantage. They are cunning, coquettish, and demanding. These women are selfish and narcissistic as they use their beauty to attain economic power.
Readability, as opposed to legibility is the ease with which we read and understand a particular written text. This paper takes into consideration the two different approaches to analyze the readability of written texts – the quantitative and qualitative analysis through a survey of subjective testing which involves the analysis of a number of reader characteristics such as degree of knowledge and interest in the subject researches on readability. The quantitative analysis focuses on text-specific objective testing which is solely based on linguistic factors such as word and sentence length which can be easily measured and quantified by using readability formulas. Qualitative analysis focuses on reader-specific, motivation, familiarity of the theme, etc. Detail analysis reveal that along with vocabulary and sentence structure, the reader’s reading ability, prior knowledge, familiarity, interest and expertise on the subject or related field in which the text is written are powerful contributors to determine text readability.
Atwood remarkably presents her characters both male and female as social and cultural constructions, conditioned and influenced by the norms, patterns and practices of society and patriarchal law.To explain the subordination and exploitation endured by men and women in the society owing to wrong beliefs, perceptions myths and traditional practices Atwood provides the allusion through the storytelling in her novels. The paper will explore that how Atwood uses storytelling as a tool to criticize and challenge the traditional myths, historical and cultural narratives that promote the construction of gender identities of men and women according to the norms of proper femininity and masculinity as well as reinforce powerful cultural images and expectations.
Buddhism represents a vast and rich intellectual tradition which, until recently, received very little influence from Western philosophy. This tradition contains a variety of teachings about how to live and what to do in various situations. Buddhism tells us to purify our own minds and to develop loving-kindness and compassion for all beings. The various forms of Buddhism offer systematic frameworks for understanding the traits of character and types of actions that cause problems for ourselves and others, as well as those qualities and actions that help to heal the suffering of the world. When starting a Buddhist path, one agrees to follow rules of moral discipline that forbid various destructive actions; but once the mind has reached a very high degree of spiritual development, the rules are transcended and one acts spontaneously for the benefit of others. The purpose of this paper to the way of understanding and activity of a Buddhist student with regard to oneself and the world around are only some factual illustrations of the objective of a traditional Buddhist education.
Human nature is described on the merit of love. Love is the most important boon of nature. It is the kind of tool which opens the treasures of happiness in the life of an individual. Love is necessary yardstick for a successful marriage. This paper explores and amylases the significance of love conjugal life in Kamala Markandaya’s Some Inner Fury. It also lays bare the women’s psyche of the female portraits. More over it is also found out in her novel that a marriage without love binds two individuals in the chains of sufferings, hurdles and melancholy. A marriage is the sacred bond of two hearts which depends on the positivity of the two individuals. An individual can live a happy and free life only when there is the presence of peace, love, cooperation and liberty on the ground level. Kamala markandaya projects these three colours in her novel Some Inner Fury rather artistically and intellectually.
Proverbs are the specified speech genres, which play an important role in the cultural system of the given community. People exhibit their linguistic proficiency and the eco-cultural knowledge by using appropriate proverbs whenever the need be. Present paper tries to investigate the cultural embedded-ness of the proverbs from Manipur, a small state in North-East India. Various aspects of the Manipuri culture have been represented through the handful of proverbs. Paper also tires to understand the cognitive foundation of the proverbs being used, by comparing similar proverb from four different languages.
Buddhist education aims at a personality transformation into a highest form of humanity through ethical, intellectual and spiritual perfection. These three faculties of perfection of human life undoubtedly lead a man through mundane happiness to supra mundane happiness, which is the highest achievement we all are equally looking for. Therefore, the Buddhist education is grounded on the primary psychological need of all living beings, that is to say as the Buddha pointed out “sukhakāmā hi sattā dukkha patikkūlā”. All living beings like happiness and they dislike unhappiness. Education is seen or expected to shape the character of a society. And yet, it finds itself in a situation where it tries to respond to or adapting the changes that take place in the society. This paper attempts to discuss on Buddhist teaching methods in ancient India.. The paper also highlights the important role played by the Buddhist monasteries in the development of education in India as well as other Asian countries.
Ethnic conflict is one of the biggest problems in the modern era. The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka showed a new dimension of conflicts that crippled the whole nation for a long time. The aim of this article is to explore the core problems of the ethnic conflicts in Sri Lanka. The first part of this article deal with the definitional terms and the causes and consequences of ethnic conflicts. The second part explored the pre-colonial conflict situations as well as the colonial period. The third part examined the traditional singhala-tamil scenario and dealt with other issues like politics, language, land reforms etc. The fourth dealt with a comparative ethnic conflict situational comparison between former Yugoslavia and Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka and by thus developed a linkages and mislinks between the two conflicts. Finally we tried to draw an attention of the readers with the manipulations and politicization of ethnicity.
Internet shopping seems to be the new buzz word in the marketing scenario, breaking the barriers of geographical reach. While many companies are moving to this new platform to market their products, a need has arisen to know the effectiveness and the level of attractiveness this fast growing channel of marketing has in the minds of the Indian Consumer.
Mobile phones are a pervasive new communication technology, especially among college students and it become more and more popular in recent years. The researchers looked at how mobile changed behaviour of teenagers. Social capital is about the value of social networks, bonding similar people and bridging between diverse people. The researcher tried to test these theories in Pakistani setting. The researcher conducted the survey with the help of self developed questionnaire on 5-point Likert Scale. The sample comprised of 100 boys and 100 girls of 1st and 2nd year students of Government Colleges. The results of the study showed that a majority of the respondents used mobile phone for communication with friends and family members. Both boy and girl students agreed that mobile phone impacts their peer relations, social norms, customs, traditions, esteems and also impact their fact-to-face communication. On the basis of results of the study the researcher proposed that teenager may reduce their time which they earlier spend on mobile phone for texting or voice calling. Mobile phone usage engages students in extra curriculum activities that affect their educational results so they may restrict themselves. Further research may be conducted to validate these findings on broader area.