ANEURISMA DE AORTA ABDOMINAL
Authors: Peña Olivar, I
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Aneurysm is identified as a pathological widening in the circumferential wall both a vein or artery, as well as the myocardium. Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur in the infrarenal arteries. Regarding a healthy person, a maximum diameter of 2.1 cm is considered physiological, in the infrarenal abdominal aorta artery, therefore, a segmental dilatation of the infrarenal aorta with a diameter greater than or equal to 3 cm is diagnosed such as abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Its etiology is multifactorial, but in general, the main cause is due to atherosclerosis, which implies a weakening of the arterial wall; likewise, there are several risk factors that can increase the contingency. The prevalence is between 2-5% in the general population and is 3 times higher in men than in women.
When a AAA rupture occurs, mortality reaches 80%, which makes it the tenth leading cause of death in men older than 55 years. Otherwise, with elective treatment, AAA would have a mortality rate of 3-5%. For this reason, obtaining an early diagnosis is of vital importance, with the aim of starting the appropriate treatment and managing a follow-up to prevent the AAA from rupturing, if it’s necessary by surgery.
Approximately seventy-five percent of cases are asymptomatic, and their discovery is casual in imaging tests for the study of other pathologies. When the sice of the AAA increases, 25-50% of patients may have classic triad that involves hypotension, low back pain, and pulsatile abdominal mass.
Regarding treatment, a decision will be reached depending on whether the aneurysm measures more than 5cm in diameter or is asymptomatic, in which a symptomatic treatment will be carried out, the causes of atherosclerotic disease will also be controlled and preventive treatment will be developed through regular ultrasound and CT scans; nevertheless, if the aneurysm measures more than 5 cm or has associated pain, surgery is recommended in order to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of rupture and death.