PREVENCIÓN PRIMARIA DE INFECCIONES NOSOCOMIALES EN LA UNIDAD DE CUIDADOS INTENSIVOS: CUIDADOS DE ENFERMERÍA
Authors: Siles Puerma, Javier
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Introduction: Nosocomial infection is defined as a disease caused by microorganisms, provoked as a consequence of the sanitary activity, and that was not present nor in the incubation period at the moment of the beginning of the sanitary attention. WHO emphasizes that nosocomial infections are the leading preventable cause of adverse effects in hospitalized patients, and stresses the critical role of prevention strategies.
Objectives: To describe nursing care that reduces the incidence of nosocomial infections in Critical Care Units.
Methodology: Using the search formula "Infection Control AND Nursing AND Intensive Care Units", a bibliographic search was performed in the LiLacs, Scielo, CINALH, Scopus, and Pubmed databases. Inclusion criteria were: Full-text articles in English or Spanish, published between January 1, 2017, and present, investigating primary prevention of nosocomial infections in the Intensive Care Unit.
Results: After the development of the bibliographic search, 29 articles were included in the study. As a whole, the articles consulted highlight the effectiveness of universal infection prevention measures, mainly in hand hygiene. In addition to universal measures, specific infection prevention measures are described, which are only applicable in certain situations.
Conclusion: A large percentage of nosocomial infections can be prevented by applying the precautions and interventions described in the scientific literature; their application is a responsibility for all members of society, highlighting the fundamental role of health care personnel.