THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTING TECHNICAL MEANS ON GRAIN CROPS DAMAGING AND QUALITY
Authors: D. Derevianko, E. Sukmaniuk, S. Chychylyuk, O. Derevianko, V. Polischuk
Number of views: 240
In the production of grain crops, scattering fields with low quality seed in most cases is exceeded by a higher seeding rate that causes significant material and financial losses. The improvement in seed quality, especially in field germination rate, mass, nature and seed purity caused by lowering its micro- and macro- damaging by means of improving and modernizing the engineering tools performance as well as by designing the equipment for introducing these processes into the production, are the define objectives of a research work. The main task lies in substantiating and making theoretical calculations as well as experimental research on the impact of operating parts during the technological processes on grain deformation, micro-damaging and quality. The tasks for achieving the goal of the research were as follows: to substantiate and to calculate the effects of the working organs of transportation means on destortion, macro- and micro- damage of grain crops seed. During the technological process of seed transportation, when filling up the grain buckets with grain, emptying them and under the motion speed of a strip, the grain seeds usually damage. The theoretical and experimental research testify that the amount of seeds in a grain bucket, seeds bumping, their striking against the inner walls, their squeezing in between the working organs, elevation angle and grain buckets spacing, etc. result in grain seed micro-damaging. The research analyses testify to the fact that the constructive parameters of working organs, biological, physical and mechanical characteristics of grain as well as the materials and covering from which the working organs are made of, namely –metal, wood, plastic materials, nylon, etc. influence the seeds damage and their quality. The experimental, productive and laboratory research testify to the fact that the rate of autumn-sown rye micro-damaging after the technological process increased up to 57.45 and 59.45 % , and the rate of non-damaged seed was 42.55 and 40.05 % correspondingly. That is, it is more than half of a total amount, which will surely influence its quality degradation, and especially its germination. As a result, it will reduce the grain crops harvest. The effects of working organs of the technical means during seed preparation on crack formation, deformation and especially micro-damaging in coordination with micro-organisms significantly lowers the qualitative indices especially those of germination.