Human Immunodeficiency Virus - Related Laboratory and Clinical Manifestations
Authors: Ivanova, L., Stoykova, Z., Kostadinova, T., Tsaneva-Damyanova, D.
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a member of the family Retroviridae that attacks the immune system of the infected person. The virus destroys a type of white blood cell (T helper cells or CD4+ cells) and gradually breaks down a person’s immune system. As many as 37 million people worldwide are thought to be infected. In our retrospective study, we review the clinical evidences as a reason for association with HIV infection and the most common co-infections in patients living with HIV. Since 2003 we have tested 148 HIV infected patients (104 males and 44 females), aged between 3 months and 67 years, average age 37.3 years. Out of the patients investigated, 108 were with proven HIV-positive status (persons living with HIV), hospitalized in "St Marina" University Hospital, Clinic of Infectious, Parasitic and Dermatovenerologic Diseases and 40 patients were found with reactive results at our Virology Laboratory and confirmed as HIV infected at the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Sofia. ELISA HIV Ag&Ab (DiaPro Italy), HbsAg (SURASE Taiwan), Anti Hbc (DiaPro Italy), Anti HCV (NANBASE Taiwan), Anti CMV IgM/IgG (EUROIMMUN Germany), Syphilis Ab screening (EUROIMMIN - Germany) were performed according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Out of the 40 investigated patients with diagnostic and therapeutic problems, 13 (32.5%) were with clinical diagnosis pneumonia, 6 (15%) with lymphadenoipathy, 5 (12.5%) with hepatitis, 3 (7.5%) with mononucleosis-like syndrome, 4 (10%) with wasting syndrome and chronic diarrhea, 4 (10%) with neurological sympthoms, 3 (7.5%) with dermatological manifestation including Herpes zoster, and 2 (5%) were mothers of infected children. Out of the 108 pre-defined HIV infected patients, we received serological data for hepatitis B in 12 (11%), hepatitis B/C co-infection in 2 (1.9%), hepatitis C in 6 (5.6%), syphilis in 24 (22.2%), CMV active infection in 21 (19.4%). The most common reason for HIV testing is the diagnosis bilateral pneumonia, unsusceptible to conventional antibacterial treatment. People living with HIV most often were co-infected with syphilis