Aedesaegypti is a vector of several pathogens including dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever virus. Five hundred thousand dengue haemorrhagic fever new cases occur every year throughout the world. Vector control is an effective way to break the transmission; unfortunately constant insecticide ultimately caused resistance. Insecticides resistance in Ae.aegypti was first discovered on trichloroetanediphenyldichloro (DDT), followed by temephos and synthetic pyrethroid.Three detection ways according to WHO procedure are bioassay, biochemistry and molecular. The biochemical detection that conducted previously in Palembang were turned out negative, nevertheless incidence rate has not yet decreased. Molecular detection is needed to determine the mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Molecular detection can detect gene mutations in the metabolic enzyme and target site insecticides, such as the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC). The purpose of research was to identify the Val1016Ile and Val1016Gly point mutation in the VGSC gene of Ae.aegypti in Palembang. Population were all 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Ae.aegypti derived from breeding eggs obtained from villages of Bukit Kecil, Ilirtimur I and Sukarami sub distric. Identification took place in BBLK Palembang while molecular test took place both in BBLK Palembang and Clinical Microbiology Department of Muhammad Hoesin Hospital Palembang. Results showed that there has been Val1016Ile point mutation and there is no Val1016Gly point mutation of voltage gated sodium channel gene. It can be concluded that there has been Val1016Ile point mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene of Ae.aegypti as the marker of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides resistance in Palembang
Abstract.Malaria is a disease that could reemerge depending on the development of risk factors for transmission. So, although now the number of cases of malaria in Pamotan village Pangandaran district has decreased, but will back to increase due to have a history as high malaria endemic areas. To anticipate, the further analysis of research data has been carried out with the aim to identify the transmission risk factors as well as to estimate the emergence of malaria cases. Results of data analysis showed that the risk factors for transmission of malaria in Pamotan village are malaria carrier patient that without clinical symptoms with density 35.08‰, the local malaria transmission (indigenous), outside the region transmission (imports), the high of mobilization of the population, and the presence of Anopheles sundaicus mosquitoes as vectors of malaria with the fluctuating density. It is also known that the population most at risk for malaria transmission is the age group 1-5 years, so it should be a priority in any malaria control activities. The regression test that resulted, if there a source of malaria transmission, rainfall data can be used as a basis for estimating the emergence of malaria cases of in the coming two months. Thus, that the activity planning can be made to anticipate the increasing of malaria transmission in order prevent outbreaks.
Abstract.High mobility amongst mining workers, demanding officer of CineamPublic Health Center can perform rapid diagnosis to the workers. Nowadays, many techniques are developed to detect the early transmission of malaria, begins from the clinical to the molecular, one of that techniques are Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs). This research has been conducted in the village of Pasirmukti district Cineam, Tasikmalaya in 2012. Objective of this paper is description RDT utilities as rapid diagnosing efforts on families who have family members as mine worker malaria endemic areas. Inclusion criteria for this study were family who have and do not have family members were working as workers in malaria-endemic areas at 2011 or 2012. Respondents were willing to participate in this study would be taken for examination RDT. Respondents were willing to participate in this study amounted to 256 people, and 5 of them positive Plasmodium malaria based on RDTs screening. Respondents who positive for malaria on RDTs test were 4 women with lower education background and work as a housewife, then a men with a background of secondary school education and are currently still as student. RDT is one of the malaria parasite tools which suitable for use in the Pasirmukti Village district Cineam - Tasikmalaya. However, keep in mind on how to storage and use in order to avoid errors both false-positive and false negatives test results.
Abstract.The used of chemicals as mosquitos repellent may causing health problems. Extract of caffir lime (Citrus hystrix)as mosquitos repellent can be used as another option.Thestudy aimed to analyze the protection capacity of C. hystrix against Aedesaegypti and Ae. albopictus.Experimental studies usingcompletely randomized design was done. The obtained data were calculated using the protection capacity formula and analysed using t-test. The result indicated thatprotection capacity of Citrus hystrix extract for 6 hours on average gave 34.82% of protection against Ae. aegypti and 41.44% of Ae. albopictus. The caffir lime extract has been able to reject Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.Although the thrust of the caffir lime is not as good as chemical products, but can be use as alternativemosquitoes repellent.
Abstract.Mosquito’s saliva is the main fundamental elements in the acquisition of human blood by mosquito, mosquito’s saliva inhibit blood hemostatic response, the influx of saliva also may stimulate the mechanism for effector formation of the host, also in this process we may find some microorganism transmission. By knowing on how the components of mosquito’s saliva process in stimulating our immune system, we could ensure the mechanism for pathogens and emerging diseases in our body.FlowCytometry method used for detecting whether increased concentration of the saliva gland extract (SGE) affecting the proliferation and development of dendritic cells from bone marrow or not, while for the effect of SGE on lymphocytes is using colorimetric test. The concentration response curve was made to see the effect of SGE on Ae. aegypti cells (DC) and lymphocytes. The proliferation of DC from bone marrow precursor, its development and its function were not directly influenced by SGE of Ae.aegypti (concentration of 2.5 to 40μg/mL). While the results of SGE effects on lymphocytes showed that lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to saliva components. Based on the data, it was concluded that lymphocytes are potential to be a target for the main components of Ae.aegypti saliva compared to its dendritic cells.