Author made an attempt of holistic conceptual approach to the understanding of contemporary ethics. Special attention is given to the analysis and characterization of modernity; its contents, main problems, trends of modern ethics; hybridization – a typical phenomenon of both the modern era, and ethics.
Paper investigates mental and socio-cultural features of the modern era; marked are the phenomena of crisis, conflict, acute contradictions and inconsistencies of the good life. It was determined that present internally correlated with human feelings of insecurity, a state of acute tension, discontent, disharmony, ambivalence, pain and suffering. A generalization was made about the presence of pathological, hazardous processes in the spiritual and civilizational life of a Ukrainian; the attention is focused on the fact that our present life-ethos characteristics are unnatural mechanical, deceptive, which lead to feelings of the fake life, which people do not feel they can master. Analysis of present allowed to model the modern understanding of ethics, identify its specificity and objectives. Author focuses attention on the importance of the boundary phenomenon. Allocated and disclosed were dual semantic constructs of the concept of “ boundary”, meaning of “limit” and “boundedness”, the dialectical properties of the distribution and unifying character.
The need to acquire new experience, willingness to expand the boundaries of personal awareness, the ability to go beyond their individual limitations (an understanding of ethics as “the experience of the boundaries and experiment”), activity in the field of social relations, the sphere of “between” (intersubjective links) active creation of a shared living space. It is argued that the ethics of the modern era has positioned itself as an essentially philosophical knowledge of the area, and as an interdisciplinary science, which successfully develops in the plane of the interaction with other fields of knowledge. It traces the latest directions for interdisciplinary studies of ethics (the concept of speech therapy, the blockade ethics, trolleyology, etc).
Attention is drawn to the problems of the Ukrainian society. Author emphasized the undermining of the moral and ethical foundations of the public groundwork, isolation of socio-economic and political spheres from the moral and ethical foundations of a culture, rooting corruption, covert methods of abuse, manipulation, provocation speculation phenomena defamation, substitution, fabrication of dual reality. It was noted that one of the main challenges for the country’s reality are the processes of hybridization, and, therefore, this phenomenon and concept require special attention and further study. Author singled contemporary phenomenon of moral-ethical pathology: negative suggestion, fake, trolling; the attention is drawn to their relationship with hybridization demonic nature. The author suggests own definition of hybridization, which includes the specifics of the meanings of suggestion, fake, trolling and demonic.
Paper emphasized that the emergence, spread and strengthening of such phenomena suggests marginalization of ethics in Ukraine and the need to revive its health capacity. For the recovery and modernization of the Ukrainian society, author proposed a revival and the modern use of ethical concepts that can serve as markers, in particular “ethos-home, “ethos – improvement”; the emphasis on their organic, spitefully human forms of organization of order and security, the satisfaction of human needs in the pursuit of happiness. In order to transfer the contradictory fullness of the intense, ambiguous situations and a better orientation in the issues of differentiation and of unity of the Ukrainian society it was proposed to use the additional concept of “boundary” together with the constructs of a double value “limit” and “boundedness”.
The paper presents the results of the sociocultural factors analysis for labor market exclusion in Ukraine and the countries of Western and Eastern Europe. For comparison with Ukraine Germany and Poland were chosen. The selected countries have different systems of value orientations and welfare models. The research source is database of the World Values Survey (2011-2012).
The analysis method is logistic regression. The results of the analysis showed that the nature of relationship between labor market exclusion and its socio-cultural factors is culturally dependent. The analysis of binary logistic regression demonstrated that in all countries the interpersonal trust, level of education, frequency of Internet use and subjective health evaluation are statistically significant factors for labor market exclusion. In Ukraine and Poland an extension of the settlement size reduces chances for labor market exclusion. But the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inclusion of other factors to the model eliminates the aforementioned effect in Poland.
A judgment concerning successful strategy of behavior within labor market is the statistically significant factor for Germany and Ukraine. But, in Germany the chances of being excluded from the labor market are increased for those who believe that “hard work does not generally bring success – it is more a matter of luck and connections’. In Ukraine this factor has the opposite effect: those, who agreed that the ‘luck and connections’ are needed for getting success have less chances of being excluded from the labor market
The purpose of the article is to investigate recreational features and self-preserving behavior of citizens in modern Ukrainian society; draw public attention to the need of finding ways to preserve and restore the health of the Ukrainian population. Empirical basis of the article are the results of the nationwide monitoring study, which was conducted by the Institute of Sociology National Academy of Sciences in 2016 with a sample representative of the key socio-demographic characteristics of the adult population (N = 1800). Authors also used monitoring results of 2012 and 2014 years. The 2014–2016 studies were conducted in all regions of Ukraine, except for Crimea.
We used a number of indicators as independent variables that can be classified as follows: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) socio-economic characteristics; 3) socio-psychological options. Galloping economic crisis in the country, the armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine, complications of private trips to Crimea, which traditionally was favorite vacation place for generations of Ukrainian residents, affected the recreational behavior of the population in 2015. Almost a third of respondents (31.3%) admitted to sociologists they did not have vacation at all (in 2013 the figure was 38.6%). Another third of respondents (31.4%) had a vacation, doing household chores (in 2013 – 25.3%); 7.5% –- were engaged during the holidays with additional work (in 2013 – 3.3%); 4.5% – went shopping, were involved in family affairs (in 2013 – 0.8%). Thus, the relative majority of respondents failed to allocate time for a fixed holiday in 2015 among an array of everyday affairs. However, despite the difficulties of life in post-maydan Ukraine, 45.3% of respondents did not stay at home during the holiday season (in 2013 the figure was 30%). Rested on the package tours (medical tourism, etc.) in Ukraine – 3.3% of respondents (in 2013 – 2.8%); had vacation in the resort place without package tour in Ukraine – 10.8% (in 2013 – 10.3%); had vacation abroad – 3.3% (in 2013 – 2.3%); rested out of the city, in the country – 14.6% (in 2013 – 8.1%); went to rest to relatives and friends – 13.3% (in 2013 – 6.5%); spent the holiday (vacation) otherwise – 0.7% of respondents (in 2013 – 1.9%). We found out the trend of domestic holidays, as well as significant prevalence of “non-organized” tourists over the “organized” traveling on vacation (holidays) with package tours. Respondents in 2016 were also asked the question “What is your general assessment of your health?”. We interpreted the answers according to 5-point scale (1 – “very bad”, 2 – “bad”, 3 – “satisfactory”, 4 – “good”, 5 – “excellent”), on which the appropriate indexes were built. Analysis of the recreational practices of Ukraine’s population by respondent’s gender revealed no significant differences. Some significant difference in recreational practice is fixed depending on the age of the respondents. Family and marital status, subjective assessment of respondents’ financial situation and social status identification are the impact factors on recreational behavior.
According to our research, the portrait of a typical vacation person are as follows: a) is most likely to be a man of 40 years; b) has graduated or is in the process of receiving degree; c) is usually resident of the capital or other major cities; d) has income higher than the average level (at least in the subjective assessment); d) likely is someone who appreciates their health. We found differentiating effect on the subjective assessment of their health of such independent variables as gender, age, type of employment (work) and to some extent – the type of settlement where the respondent lives.
The resulting sociological information can be useful for economists, medical professionals, specialists in the field of recreation and tourism, etc.
The article is devoted to the development of the concept and methodology of sociological monitoring of the individual’s life and safety. In particular, author described the essence of monitoring, its main functions (diagnostic, analytical, predictive, informational, managerial), the effectiveness of which depends on strict adherence to sound scientific principles.
The definition of the sociological monitoring as a complex information-analytical system of continuous learning, and data analysis about the state of an object, helped to identify its structural components such as goal, objectives, subject, object and methods. Paper suggests analysis of the technological stages for carrying out sociological monitoring of security threats to the individual’s life. These stages include: establishing a system of basic indicators, which will be collecting information; model development for information analysis of the research object; determination of measurement methods assessment of the individual’s life safety, its scaling and normalization; forecasting of the possible changes of the study’s object; forming of the data archive.
The attention is focused on the creation of the basic indicators system (initial objective and subjective indicators). Objective quantitative indicators allow to characterize the trends and patterns of social development, the efficiency of the system to ensure the safety. While subjective indicators are aimed at measuring the level of life organization processes, taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of individuals, their worldview, system of value orientations, the level of situational anxiety, awareness of the security level, safety of functioning and development.
Components of the security indicators of any social system are the value (actual value, norm, challenge, threat), reflecting the degree of influence of a particular indicator on a steady state of its operation and development. It is proved that the efficiency of the sociological monitoring of the individual’s life and safety largely depends on his status and place in the system of ensuring national security, strategic forecasting of social development. Author determined that an important condition for formation of an effective system of sociological monitoring is the establishment of a legal and institutional basis for a mechanism of obtaining representative data.
The introduction presents research subject theoretical models of multiculturalism. Outlined goal is the disclosure of these models content with the aim of finding the optimal in the context of solving cultural diversity issues in modern world, including the Ukrainian society. The main part describes analysis of theoretical models of “hard” multiculturalism by W. Kymlicka and “soft” multiculturalism by Ch. Kukathas. It is shown that the “hard” model insists on mandatory regulatory support of cultural groups to its maximum capacity in order to preserve its identity and traditions. This means not only subsidizing their operations, but also provision of the legal and political guarantees against discrimination and any adverse conditions. The state should also care of cultural groups adhere to fundamental civil rights that liberal system provides to all individuals.
It is proved that the basic principle of “soft” multiculturalism model is the tolerance of otherness without the need for its mandatory and special cultivation. People do not need to adhere to the values, which they share, and are not forbidden to live according to the principles dear to them. The presence of other cultures and traditions considered tolerant, even if these traditions, even if they are not consistent with liberal values.
The conclusions point out the possibilities of finding an optimal multiculturalism model for each society. Modern states must find the balance between freedom and equality of citizens regardless of their ethnic, religious, racial differences, preserve consolidating traditions and norms of civic identity and citizenship institute.
The author evaluates the theoretical potential of the “risk society” concept for research of contemporary mothering. The paper is based on statistical data as well as on author’s study of practices of combining paid labor and care for children by employed mothers. The author distinguishes two dimensions of applying the concept of risk society. First, the impact of a society of risk and uncertainty on women’s reproductive attitudes and practices. One of the motivations of postponed childbirth and fertility intentions on giving birth to only one child is fear for the fate of children, especially in societies with economic and political instability.
These risks are gendered, that is caused by high probability of divorce in Ukraine and high number of mother-headed families in Ukraine, the risk of poverty of these families, and the emergence of conflict between paid and reproductive labor, especially in terms of increasing social and cultural “standards of motherhood”. Secondly, it is the impact of risk society and “culture of fear” on everyday mothering practices. The author’s research demonstrates that issue of parental fears, various threats to children and the mothers’ desire to protect the child from them is a part of the contemporary mothers’ narratives.
The mothers’ ideas of space outside the home as a dangerous for the child is more than just a discourse, but also is a part of the daily care practices for the child.
Author investigates the role of entrepreneurship in stimulating social transformations in Ukrainian region based on the historical and economic generalization of the national economic practice in 19th – early 20th centuries. The link between the growth trends in the number of enterprises and change in the social structure of Ukrainian population is analyzed. This link is manifested in the deployment of large-scale factory production, which promotes the formation of the free labor market and singling out the groups of workers and merchants. The peculiarities of the impact of business sector on urban population growth and the development of urban infrastructure are disclosed.
The role of business in providing the technological modernization and concentration of production, which resulted in a saturation of the domestic market with goods and food is justified. The importance of entrepreneurship is determined in stimulating the Ukrainian population’s employment.
At the same time, the problems of strengthening the workers’ material dependence, preservation of archaic forms of business communication and the lack of effective social dialogue have been detected. The attention is stressed on the formation features of the patronage and social responsibility as the means of business sector participation in stimulating social development. It is revealed that the main forms of business’ charity were the investments in the construction of religious, medical and cultural facilities and financial support for research and education. However, it is determined that the patronage was often carried out in order to obtain some benefits, and the charitable activity was implemented against ruthless exploitation of the working masses. At the same time, it is determined that in the 19th – early 20th centuries on Ukrainian territory the stratum has appeared of socially conscious entrepreneurs with respectful and fair treatment to factory workers as well as with a comprehensive approach to the implementation of various social programs.
It is proved that the ambiguity of the effects of business for social development was caused by the lack of effective partnership between business and the state, preservation of the traditions of personal and material dependence, expansion of the domestic manufacturing sector by foreign business element.
The article summarizes the current trends in the development of credit relations in Ukraine considering institutional aspect. It was determined that in the process of establishment and development of credit relations in Ukraine, the biggest expansion was obtained by bank lending with high market concentration indicators. Before the beginning of the financial and economic crisis, the well activity of the Ukrainian credit market provided financial stimulation of the country’s economic growth by increasing consumer demand, financing of the construction industry and industrial production. However, the weak internal resource base of the domestic financial market, the underdeveloped institutional infrastructure, the longstanding tight regulator’s monetary policy after beginning of the crisis and decreasing the level of confidence in banking system, led to the freezing of banking lending.
Under these conditions highlighted the trend of increasing of the non-bank credit institutions’ activity. During the past three years these institutions were able to increase their credit portfolios for the mass demand of the households for consumer lending. Despite positive signs of activation of the non-banking financial sector of Ukraine, the high rates of non-banks’ credit portfolio growth and the extra-high interest rates on consumer loans give reasons to talk about the danger of forming preconditions for the debt crisis for households. In these conditions, efforts should be focused on eliminating institutional insufficiency for the providing development of investment lending and reducing the cost of loans. To do this, it is necessary to solve problems in the legislation to make it impossible to sell the pledges, using the hedging instruments, and to stimulate the development of infrastructure institutions in the credit market. It requires attention of the government, regulators and experts to monitor the risk of excessive debt burden on households.
At this stage, it is necessary to increase the transparency of the consumer lending segment of the market, both banking and non-banking, and to consider the possibility to provide legislative limitation on level of interest rates and other limits for consumer loans hereafter.
Authors examine the world experience of work with insolvent banks. The mechanism of liquidation as the most common procedure of working with insolvent banks in Ukrainian practice is determined. The shortcomings of Ukrainian legislation in the context of the evidence for bank classifications as insolvent and failing are defined. The main grounds of denying Deposit Guarantee Fund (DGF’s) claims and the cancellation of NBU’s decisions on referring banks to the insolvent ones are found out. The main causes of bad debts growth, which resulted in the losses of the banking system, are outlined. The assessment of banks scales, which have been taken off the market in 2014–2017, is presented. It is noted that the process of “mopping up” the banking sector led to a sharp increase in the financial burden on DGF, which, in turn, was forced to borrow in the government.
The analysis of insolvent banks’ assets is presented. Facts of biased evaluation of property rights claims under credit agreements and assets evaluation, that reflects the hopeless of bank’s money return, are established. The growth of state debt of Ukraine due to devaluation of the national currency and the issue of internal bonds, tax gaps as consequences of “mopping up” the banking sector is revealed.
The ways of negative impact minimization of “mopping up” Ukrainian banking sector by adequate NBU’s execution of supervision and controlling functions, increase in transparency and efficiency of DGF’s and State Financial Monitoring Service of Ukraine’s activities, improvement of a legal mechanism of banks’ investors and creditors protection are proved.
Based on the data from the national survey, the income structure of the adult population of Ukraine is demonstrated.
Paper presents the dynamics of the self-assessment of financial situation, assessment of the desired income level, average income per one family member, income, what characterizes the family as poor, the fancied and the real minimum subsistence income.
Reviewed are the cost structure, dynamics and structure of savings. In addition, authors suggest trend analysis of the indices of socio-economic assessments and expectations for different socio-demographic groups.