This work presents an overview of the style and technique which William Shakespeare used in order to create his own form of sonnet sequence. In other words, this article presents a detailed analysis of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 66 through the lens of the American New Critical approach. It means that the precise fourteen-line structure of the sonnet is examined, and such a structure reflects the Bard’s themes and ideas inside of the sonnet. The article gives an analysis of particular features of the American New Criticism and the people who contributed to the creation of such a literary criticism. Furthermore, the article explains the notion of how the language used reflects the meaning behind Sonnet 66. Also, the article explains the ways in which the Bard influenced other poetry writers, such as Laza Kostić, as well as the manner through which he was able to insert elements of his poetic craft into the famous Shakespearean dramas.
It is important for the effectiveness of learning environments to consider group or individual learners’ characteristics, competences and experiences throughout the process of planning learning environments. This study aimed at investigating the differences of language learning styles between males and females and among four high school grades. The participants were 90 male (46.2%) and 105 female (53.8%) high school students studying at public religious high school (Madrasa) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For testing the main research questions, a 5-point likert scale questionnaire was distributed to 195 high school students. While no significant correlation was found between learning styles and gender, a significant correlation was unexpectedly found between learning styles and grades. These results are a good platform for the research of gender and grade based differences among language learners.
Ideally, journalism makes current information public and facilitates democracy therewith. For accomplishing this task, comprehension as well as interest in the sense of engagement and in the sense of selecting a message are the most important effects of a journalistic message. As these effects are attributed to narratives, 15 experiments from 13 publications, which investigate the differences between traditional and narrative news writing style, were analysed. While the studies reported positive effects of narrative news on narrative engagement, news selection was not part of the investigation. The results for comprehension were intermediate except for a favourable effect of narratives on information recognition. Implications for further research are discussed.
The English language has for a long time occupied a central position on a global scale and been used by speakers of various linguistic backgrounds for successful communication. This has especially been proven in practice by the world of business, with an overwhelmingly large number of corporations operating across state borders and linguistic and cultural barriers. With the change of field and medium, it is inevitable that the language itself is going to change and adapt to new needs and applications. Electronic communication is the main means of correspondence between such internationally operating companies, and this paper took it up to investigate how the medium influenced the language of e-mail messages between business people with different native languages. 59 e-mail messages between a company from Bosnia & Herzegovina and a company based in Romania were gathered and manually tagged for syntactic variation. To answer the question of whether BELF favoured linguistic purity over matter or vice versa, we looked into grammar, syntactic structures, vocabulary, e-mail openings, and request-making strategies. All these parameters were considered as indicators of BELF formality/informality. The conclusions reached here are generally in line with the way in which BELF was characterised by some of the most important investigators in the field. Significant variations from regular grammatical standards were displayed in the language at hand, and BELF was here marked as being semi-formal, with some aspects leaning towards informality and other towards formality. Overall, it seems that business people have no regard for linguistic purity, while they value the main point of the message, facts and numbers to a much greater extent.
In schools where the English language is taught, it might be challenging to treat and teach students equally, if they are of diverse cultures. Potential problems may occur because students have different understanding, background knowledge, learning abilities and cognitive skills, as well as challenges related to comprehension, pronunciation, and vocabulary and language acquisition in general. The paper investigates teaching English to students of diverse cultures in schools. The results showed large differences in terms of learning and acquiring English evident in: difficulty acquiring vocabulary, frequent occurrence of code switching, and cognitive challenges.. The results showed a relationship between learners’ motivation and attitudes towards learning. The evidence indicated that culturally diverse students in elementary school are more active and verbal in English learning classes while those in high school face more difficulties related to pronunciation, speaking in large groups and motivation. Culturally different students at the university level develop into introverted students with less cognitive skills. With proper methods applied by the teachers, students’ achievements can be upgraded which would eventually influence students’ skills of mastering the English language.
U okviru ovog rada analizirana je etika javnog komuniciranja kao platforma za samoregulaciju odnosa s javnostima. U analizi je korištena deduktivna metodologija, a problematika etičke samoregulacije analizirana je na prakseološkom, fenomenološkom i ontološkom nivou. Analizirana je primjena etičkih principa i teorija, baziranih na utilitarističkim i deontološkim pristupima na području odnosa s javnošću. Posebnu pažnja posvećena je dilemema u vezi sa primjenom etičkih postulata u komunikacijskoj praksi, a predstavljeni su i etički kodeksi koji se primjenjuju u PR profesiji kao i osnovne smjernice za primjenu PR etike u rješavanju komunikacijskih izazova.
This study investigates criteria that influence the development of students’ mobility at the University College of Teacher Education in Lower Austria over the last 12 years. Generally, there is an increase on the number of incoming students while there is a decrease on the number of outgoing students. To identify reasons for this development, a total of 223 learning agreements have been analysed. In order to help interpret results, interviews with students engaging in an Erasmus programme aiming at spending a term studying abroad and a person in charge of coordinating Erasmus programmes have been held. In accordance with other studies on student mobility, this research identifies aspects that are generally conducive and others which are unfavourable for study abroad. The analyses of the outcomes show that the prospect of gaining intercultural experience, the interest in further developing soft skills, the language of instruction at the university and country of destination on the one hand, and the conditions at the home university including the amount of credits recognised by the sending institution on students’ return, as well as the probability of time loss on the other hand are the main criteria that are influential on a teacher trainee’s decision whether to spend a semester studying in a foreign country. Moreover, strategies for encouraging student mobility such as the organisation of information events, the provision of language courses, and a more extensive credit transfer system for outgoing students are identified.
The study aims to investigate how gender and achievement affect foreign language anxiety (FLA) scores among 379 Austrian students in upper secondary education. The analysis revealed that the majority of students display moderate levels of overall foreign language anxiety, a compound variable of general foreign language anxiety, foreign language reading, writing and listening anxiety. A two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effect of both gender and achievement on the participants’ overall foreign language anxiety scores, but no significant interaction effect. Moreover, a two-way MANOVA proved that both gender and achievement had a significant main effect on the combined variables with large effect sizes. The interaction effect of gender X achievement on the combined variables was significant, albeit with a much smaller effect size. Gender and achievement thus emerged as influencing factors in the creation of FLA in Austrian upper secondary education, in particular with regard to the productive language skills.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the importance of feedback in the learning process. It focuses particularly on the relation between different types of feedback and language development. The definition of feedback is given in the introductory part, and the importance of differentiation between error, mistake and attempt is highlighted. The roles of input and output are being argued in the chapter that follows, with emphasis on the significance of output. The theory of corrective feedback focuses on the types of negative feedback, the role of implicit and explicit negative feedback in the second language classroom, and the importance of interaction in order to increase the knowledge and acquisition of the target language. The aim of this paper is to review different approaches and provide a conclusion accordingly.
The use of videos in teaching is becoming more and more widespread. For this purpose, not only existing videos are used, but also exclusive videos are created. There are different types of instructional videos used and created for teaching. It is useful to know which design principles these videos should follow in order to evaluate the quality of existing learning videos and to know the criteria one should consider when creating exclusive instructional videos. Therefore, questions arise as to how these videos should be designed to equally support theory and practice and what educational requirements they should meet for the use in teaching. These questions are answered with the framework of the study in hand that applied the method design-based research, incorporating qualitative and quantitative research methods. Survey instruments were guided interviews with experts, questionnaires for school students and a focus group. Participants in the study were teachers and students from the Vienna University of Teacher Education. The field of application was nutrition and consumer education for teaching students of the middle school. The results are presented in the form of design principles.
The world has become a huge marketplace wherein trade between various cultures and nations is taking place, thus leading to an overwhelming need for one common language used worldwide among speakers of various native languages. Historically, this role has been occupied by different languages, even though the use of none of them can be compared to the current omnipresence of English. Thus, the aim of the present paper is to discuss the notion of English as a global language, global lingua franca with a major focus on the development of Business English as lingua franca (BELF), which has been embraced as a common language in multilingual and multicultural companies. Furthermore, this paper examines general characteristics of BELF and compares it to other similar concepts such as Business English (BE) and English as Lingua Franca (ELF). With the growing importance and presence of BELF worldwide, the teaching aspect has arisen as an important issue, so this paper touches upon it as well.
A variety of different factors seem to have an influence on both second language learning difficulties as well as learning strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different socio-economic status and grade point average on learning strategies and learning difficulties in second language acquisition (SLA) process. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to gather data, i.e. a survey method was applied. The research sample included 206 high school participants. The results showed that a socioeconomic status did not have a significant influence on the students’ second language acquisition difficulties. However, the students’ grade point average significantly affected second language acquisition difficulties and also language learning strategies. The results of this study may help instructors to tailor instructions and content to students’ needs and their preferable styles of learning. Taking into consideration students’ learning difficulties and learning strategies in designing and implementing classes may significantly improve teaching and learning outcomes.
Semantic preference and semantic prosody are two notions that were carefully analysed in post-Firthian corpus linguistics and in the past few years there has been a growing interest in them. As corpora have become larger in size, and tools for extracting different lexical items for different purposes have been developed, the two terms have been addressed more frequently by linguists1. Throughout history, semantic preference and semantic prosody have sometimes been used for the same phenomenon but at other times the two were considered different but closely related. Previous corpus-based studies on the two terms have shown that they can be attached to many investigated lexical items. Therefore, this paper aims to present a detailed theoretical overview of the two terms in order to emphasise their immense importance for identifying the meaning of all the lexical items.
The question of gender differences in language use has been repeatedly explored and claims about these distinctions that were once considered invariable have been questioned and refuted. One of the less explored areas within this issue, however, is the phenomenon of swearing. This paper aimed to explore how and why men and women swear on one of the most popular social media sites, Facebook, and how the context in which such utterances are produced modulates their frequency and form. The study found that both men and women are more likely to swear when commenting on the content produced by the same gender and also when surrounded by other males and females, respectively. Furthermore, the research confirmed some previous studies in which men were found to swear more out of aggressiveness, while women do so to exaggerate their words.
Deontology, the science of teaching professional duties refers to the moral obligation of teachers towards students. The principle of ethics: "Age quod agis" or "Do (well) what you're doing“involves legislation, psychology of communication, behavior and ethics. Overcoming pedagogical ethics as attitude towards professional obligations, community and colleagues, it studies the rights and duties regulated by the code of the profession. The difference between Bentham's and Kant's views about duties is the difference between professional oath and school's code of ethics. Therefore deontology consider duties as base of moral and professionally mature person who swears to success, while code of ethics is based on a mistrustful society that doubt in the identity of moral values, professionals and society as well.
This paper examined the linguistic landscape of the Governorate of Farwaniya, the biggest governorate in the State of Kuwait, by means of public and private signs displayed in the city center and side streets. A corpus of 150 photos of diverse signs, both official and non-official, was collected, categorized, analyzed and discussed. The results point to an undeniable representation of the Arabic language in both public and private spheres of life as well as to a substantial presence of the English language on a wide range of signage therefore confirming the imprint the process of globalization has made on this EFL context. The findings also indicate that some other world languages, namely Bengali, Hindi, and Chinese, are represented in the linguistic landscape of Kuwait but rather poorly.
Since the area presenting former Yugoslavia has no mandatory Romani langauge classes and consequently no offically recognized translation classes, nor does it provide training for Romani translators, this paper deals with the experience and the current situation of Romani translation and translators. Theoretical background of Polysystems, Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS), Skopos and non-systems oriented ‘Cluster concept’ provide support for a better approach to translation in the Romani context. ‘Cluster concept’ allows the possibility to create a definition of Translation Romani as a new approach to Translation Studies. As translation represents one of the ways to preserve and develop linguistic vitality in the minority languages, reassuring its speakers, activating the creation of new vocabulary, and strengthening domains of language use that are under-used, it also applies as a way for creating translation strategies for teaching Translation Romani. This research is grounded in personal experience, and presents the beginning of the research on Translation Romani (TR).
Shakespeare’s universality places him beyond all ages. He is the only author, not born in our age but whose works guarantee on regular basis financial prospects. Shakespeare's success story as a writer is unprecedented in human history. Apart from the prophets of the Holy Scriptures and the philosophers of antiquity, no one else but Shakespeare can claim an impact on human mind and heart of a mega scale that goes beyond any age, any religion, any language and any geography. Uncertainty of the political systems, ruthless growth of violence, sexual anxiety, dismemberment of filial bond and the essential spirit of improvisation in times chaotic, the very hallmark of our culture as well as of his drama, force us to see him in a post-colonial contemporary context to find a direction, a resolve and an asylum from the ‘neo-colonial’ disaster of the 21st century. Shakespeare’s treatment of the word imagery, giving word a graphic texture, does not allow his modern audience to approach his works dealing with the concept of ‘conflict’ in the Greek classical sense of the word. Conflict is not the soul of Shakespearean tragedy. Shakespearean tragedy transforms it into the ‘illumnationist’ principle of ‘diversity’. Shakespeare’s art is the ‘quintessence’ of mankind. Whenever justice is violated, his drama speaks for those who stand bewildered, lost and wronged. KingLear, arguably, is the greatest specimen of poetic art on earth. The play is gradual defining of a new sensibility where life is regarded as culmination of a process of transformation. A play where, ‘Najasa’ (a term to describe the fallen women; from Arabic Najas: the impure, unwholesome, filthy) the faithless-faceless-shameless ‘whore, the bawd’, introduces in the name of progressive disciplines its filth and corruption as normal walk of life. These fashionable the ‘gilded butterflies’, the worldly wise ‘court rogues’, if remain the role models, human civilizations stand no chance to grow intellectually and spiritually. These people represent a mindset, the mind of the outdated patriarchal system of cheap compromises, disloyalty, lack of dignity, competition for power play and possession of wealth. Shakespeare suggests a solution; matriarchal system.
The twenty-first century is the century of encounter of the different races, nations, cultures, religions and customs. In the twenty-first century, man is more and more exposed to various influences that leave a trace on the entire sphere of his social life, including education. Given that education systems play one of the key roles in the formation of both physically and morally healthy communities, it is of an enormous importance to analyze the phenomenon of a classroom composed of culturally diverse students. Each individual is nowadays exposed to various influences that leave a trace on the educational sphere of his social life. Taken into consideration how educational institutions have become more and more diverse in terms of cultures, views and perspectives it is of a great importance to analyze the phenomenon of a multicultural education. Moreover, it is of an utmost significance to study the benefits of a diverse classroom in the manner that will provide students with sufficient knowledge about the importance of multiculturalism, but at the same time ease teacher’s time spent at work. This paper examines the instances and benefits of diversity through the use of different strategies and analyses the multiculturalism of the 21st century merged in everyday classroom life.
This paper aims to offer a new understanding of the Byronic hero through the character of Jane Eyre. By definition, the Byronic hero presents a potent individual who defiantly breaks the social norms of his time as they oppose his own moral philosophy. Ever since the archetype of the Byronic hero was created, prevalently male characters in literature have been characterized as such, from Byron’s Childe Harold, Emily Brontë’s Heathcliff, to Dumas’ Dantes. Even though she was a female, Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë’s title character, displayed behavior resembling that of the previously mentioned male characters. This indicates that Jane Eyre did not only break the social norms of her time but also the mold of the Byronic hero. On her journey from childhood to adulthood, many tried to suppress her wayward behavior. However, she always managed to rise above such plights and continued going off the beaten track, just like other Byronic heroes. Relying on the close-reading method, this paper follows Jane Eyre through different stages of her life in which she reveals her Byronic nature.
This study is mainly concerned with the presence of Anglicisms in and their influence on the Bosnian language, with a greater focus on Anglicisms in the media and web portals. The study investigates several local web portals in an attempt to determine which sections of the portals and are adapting English words the most, and in what way the adaptation occurs. The study also explores the way in which journalists use Anglicisms in their work. The main goal of this research was to determine at what level Anglicisms are adapted into the Bosnian language the most, and what aspects of language contain most Anglicisms in use. This research helps us understand the importance of the English language in general, and particularly its impact on the Bosnian language.
In the modern technology era it is necessary to find the best ways of utilizing its results and products for educational purposes, i.e. for enhancing teaching and learning processes. The paper presents a research conducted in the secondary schools of the Zenica-Doboj Canton. The aim of the research was to identify the extent to which these B&H schools use modern teaching aids in their foreign language classroom.