Marx's theory of revolution in the social thought context of the XX century in Europe
Authors: Schulz E.E.
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Purpose. Studying of a complex of K. Marx’ and F. Engels’ ideas on the theory of revolution: the reasons, consequences, algorithm, regularities of revolutions, - in a context of the representations which have developed to the XIX century about this subject in social, political and philosophical thought.
Methods. The study of theoretical representations about the revolutions which have been developed to “Marx’s era” and defined views of the German philosopher. Bases of Marx’s theory of revolution are presented in comparison with special researches of his predecessors and contemporaries, and look genetically connected with the era and a condition of research thought.
Results. To the middle of the XIX century there was a complex of theoretical ideas of revolutions, laws of their emergence and development. Marx’s ideas of revolutions didn’t arise from scratch and in many respects don’t represent essentially anything new, they “grew up” from this research environment and are genetically connected with the era and a condition of research thought of that time. Marx isn’t engaged in revolution definition as the phenomena, doesn’t bring anything new in studying of algorithm. In views of the reasons of emergence of revolutions Marx takes part of adherents “economic approach” and builds it at the center, bringing to degree of an extreme determinism. From the point of view of consequences of revolutions Marx focuses attention on transition as a result of revolutions not only to a new system, but also to a new formation – the idea which has been already stated to Marx, but, perhaps, at Marx received the greatest value. In what Marx really acted as the innovator is in a typologization of revolutions.
Scientific innovation. The theory of revolution of Marx is considered by researchers as the finished complex of independent and innovative ideas. Marx had no own finished theory of revolution, but only separated, though numerous, statements on this subject, based on achievements modern to it research thought which since the end of the XIX century “Marxists” started systematizing in the full theory. Numerous provisions of the theory of revolution, attributed to Marx, belong to successors, instead of Marx.