Digital Economy: The Essence, Features, and Global Tendencies of Development
Authors: Khanin I. H., Bilozubenko V. S., Sopin Y. O.
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The new type of economic management, which begins to be built nowadays and is based on the widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICT), has been named the «digital economy». The use of ICT and digital systems carries great advantages, comprehensively changes the national economies. The transition to digital economy is objective and irrevocable, so one needs to clearly understand this new essence, its features and development tendencies. The publication is aimed at outlining a modern understanding of the essence, determining the features, characteristics and peculiarities of digital economy, as well as defining tendencies in its development in the context of globalization of the world economy. The article explains the importance of ICT in economics, the creation of digital systems, the Internet of people and things, cyberphysical systems, various equipment and devices. The main results of widespread use of ICT, especially the development of the Internet, are formulated. Explanations of digitalization and digital transformation are provided. In general, the consequences of the use of ICT at the intra-organization, meso-economic and macro-economic levels are specified. The essence features of digital economy and the general bases of its emergence with an emphasis on the role of the Internet are distinguished. In this context, a number of characteristics of digital economy are defined. Four major approaches to determining the essence of digital economy (political-economic, technological, resource-factor, entrepreneurial) are substantiated. To disclose the structure of digital economy, its main types are distinguished, including the auxiliary ones (designing the websites, Internet marketing, analytics, etc.). The importance of payment transactions is emphasized. The use of ICT to ensure the activities of industrial enterprises and the creation of «smart» things, cities, infrastructure, etc. are taken into account. It is proposed to consider digital economy as a modernization and a new paradigm for the development of socio-economic systems. In this context, structural, organizational, managerial, institutional-legal, social, spatial features of such an economy are distinguished. The need to study the global aspects of the development of digital economy is emphasized, within terms of which the relevant tendencies are determined, taking into account the development of e-business, industries and market segments, the transformation of digital economy into a source of economic growth and development.