Tendencies in the Development of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation
Authors: Polyakov M. V., Bilozubenko V. S., Shablii S. Y.
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In recent decades, there has been an intensification of international scientific and technological cooperation (ISTC), which takes place in various forms. The publication is aimed at generalizing the methodological bases of research and examining the main tendencies in the development of modern ISTC. The essence of ISTC and its objective predeterminence are defined, its importance as a factor of a world-wide development on the basis of the global spread of the achievements of science is specified. The peculiarities of ISTC progress at both macro- and micro-levels, which covers all stages of knowledge acquisition and takes place in an intensive manner in the field of both fundamental and applied research, are explained. The main elements of the methodology of the ISTC research are: principles, conditions of development, types, forms, directions, mechanisms and main effects. It is substantiated that the most important precondition for the development of ISTC is its institutionalization. International business became one of the leading forces in the ISTC. The main structural tendencies in the development of ISTC (increasing the degree of institutionalization, geographical diversification, diversification of the directions of cooperation, wide application of information and communication technologies (ICT), international scientific associations, etc.) are allocated. The peculiarities of participation in the ISCT of both developed and developing countries, as well as spatial changes (increasing the level of globalization, intensification of cooperation at the level of cities, universities, innovation zones; development of spatial and network structures of production, organization and use of knowledge; intensification of global mobility of highly qualified personnel, transfer of technologies) are explained. Attention is drawn to the formation of global innovation networks; development of intensive knowledge communities; expanding participation of universities in the ISTC; increasing the number of information platforms as the basis of ISTC; expanding the role of international scientometric databases, repositories, archives, libraries on the Internet. Measures are proposed to intensify and improve the ISTC system at both the global and the regional levels, especially the multilateral mechanisms to support developing countries. Attention is focused on the need to use a noosphere approach.