The Phenomenon of Student Migration in Ukraine
Authors: Velychko K. Y., Yaremenko M. O.
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To study the processes of educational migration among Ukrainian students, in the article, the features of the process of student migration in Ukraine were analyzed. Factors that significantly influence this process were highlighted, among which the main one is the desire to get a good education because of the higher standards and, most often, to stay after studying in a country, which altogether is negative for Ukraine. It was determined that the main impetus for expanding educational migration was the adoption in 2014 of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education", that declared international integration and integration of the national higher education system into the European educational space, as well as an active participation of Ukrainian universities in Erasmus+, Horizon 2020, which formed a segment of Ukrainian international academic mobility. Using scientific methods such as data collection, interpretation of research, and construction of several regression models, it was concluded that Poland, Germany, and the Russian Federation are the centers of attraction of Ukrainian student youth during the study period. It was proved that the factors which contributed to the selection of these countries are linguistic and territorial proximity (Russia, Poland), perception of tradition, culture, as well as the opportunity to study for free (France, Poland). It was also emphasized the importance of the gender aspect of student migration. It was statistically proven that women are more likely to go abroad for tertiary education than men. Using a model of multiple regression, which was not previously used in studies of migration processes, it was found that among the possible factors influencing the variable "exit mobility rate", the development of international tourism had the greatest impact. Necessary migration policy measures on reducing the level of emigration were proposed. Moreover, the importance of solving such a problem as "brain drain" was suggested, which means the emigration of highly qualified professionals, associated with student migration, and has a very negative impact on the formation of scientific potential, and the recommendations to eliminate the negative results of the current situation of "brain drain" in Ukraine were proposed. Furthermore, the mentioned in this article scientific developments can be used in further research on student emigration in Ukraine.