The assessment of preschoolers’ social skills represents a topic of growing importance in research recently
developed in the field. The purpose of this article is to present confirmatory factor analyses studies for the Social Skills scale
of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2), a behavior rating scale that evaluates social
skills and problem behaviors, adapted and validated for Portuguese preschool children. The 34 items of the Social Skills
scale, distributed on three subscales (Social Cooperation/Adjustment, Social Interaction/Empathy and Social Independence/ Assertiveness), were grouped into item-parcels. Model adjustment was analyzed for the total sample (N = 2000) and the analyses were replicated for the subsamples collected in the home (n = 1000) and school settings (n = 1000). The factor
structure was very stable for the three samples, with high internal consistency levels and correlations between parcels/scales. The results highlight the utility/validity of the Social Skills scale of the PKBS-2 (Portuguese version).
In this study we present the results of the adaptation of the Adolescent Self-Regulatory Inventory (ASRI) to Portugal.
The measure was used with two samples of high school students to which ASRI was administered with Self-Regulation Scale
as control measure. In the first study the measures were administered to 823 adolescents and the construct validity analysis was assessed with exploratory factor analysis. The results allow us to find an adequate structure with proper psychometric properties, in their construct and content validity, and reliability. A second study involved 435 adolescents, being tested three models using confirmatory factor analyses. The final version of the ASRI-2 presents an acceptable fit of the data in construct and concurrent validity, given its moderate or high correlation with academic success and substance use. The implications of this new approach to the self-regulation study are discussed and directions to further studies are suggested.
This study investigated the relation between love and different romantic relationships with variable vulnerability to HIV, such as sexual behavior and risk perception. Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale and a structured questionnaire were used to ask 301 high school students about: romantic relationships, sexual behavior and risk perceptions. It was identified that the adolescents underestimate their own risk of contagion when they compare themselves with other individuals and also when they consider past and future possible HIV contagion. Love does not appear to be directly associated with the selfperception
of risk, however, in conjunction with dating, it is a complicating factor for protected sex and was also related to the underestimation of risk of the partner. It was observed that stable relationships and love increase the students’ vulnerability to acquire HIV, because of the association of these with trust in the partner and the justification of risky practices, such as the non-use of condoms.
Certain variables can act as mediators between marital quality, social and emotional aspects of the individuals and
their context. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of conflict resolution styles as mediators between attachment
styles and marital quality. A total of 214 couples participated in the present study aged between 18 and 75 years, residents
in Southern Brazil. Three scales were administered: The Conflict Resolution Style Inventory, Golombok Rust Inventory of
Marital State and Adult Attachment Scale. Results indicate that the styles of conflict resolution (positive problem solving,
conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance) mediate the relationship between attachment and marital quality. A
difference between husbands and wives was observed. These findings suggest the importance of expanding the repertoire of
positive strategies of conflict resolution of the couples for the promotion of marital quality.
There are few studies regarding sexual violence (SV) against boys in Brazil. Considering this fact, the present study aimed to investigate cases reported in the General Coordination of Health Surveillance of Porto Alegre (POA GVCS) between 2009 and 2011. A total of 239 notification forms were analyzed according to: characteristics of the victim (i.e., age, race, education
level, presence of disability, SV consequences); of the SV (i.e., occurrence year, notification year, notifying establishment, context, place of occurrence, type, occurrence of penetration, number of episodes, others forms of violence, number of perpetrators, final classification – whether confirmed or not – and referrals); and of the abusers (i.e., gender, relationship to the victim, use of alcohol/drugs). There was predominance of white boys between seven and 12 years of age, victims of intrafamilial SV of two or more episodes perpetrated by male perpetrators. These results can be used in planning preventive and therapeutic interventions specific to boys who are victims of SV.
In this study, the relation of age and sex with visuospatial reasoning assessed by the Cube Test was investigated.
In addition, a comparative study was conducted between this study sample and the normative group of the test with regard to
visuospatial reasoning performance results. Six hundred and eighty-four students participated in this study, from the city of Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), aged between 15 and 57 years old, both male and female. The results showed
both age and sex differences, where younger students showed a significantly higher performance than older students and men
showed significantly higher averages than women in every test comparison. In the study with the normative sample, men
showed higher averages than women throughout every age group and in the overall result of both studies. The results obtained
reflect those found in the literature and highlight the influence of age and sex on visuospatial reasoning.
Expertise is one of the ways one can make one’s behaviors become automatic, and with consumption it is no different. Explanatory models of this sort of behavior described in the literature up to now have considered only conscious or rational buying, and do not apply to automatic buying. The model proposed here is inspired by, and adapted from, the behavior analyses, integrating variables that have typically been neglected in the traditional models, such as contextual variables. This study aimed to describe the relationship between the reports of behavior linked to the consumption of esthetics (operationalized in four variables: commenting, getting information, using cosmetic products and services) and the individual variables and those of the setting where purchases related to beauty were made. In order to do so, 953 Brazilian women responded to an online questionnaire. The model was tested and partially confirmed. Contextual socialpsychological variables were the only ones to predict routine buying. Demographic and individual variables did not account for the variance explanation of the behaviors measured. It is suggested that further studies should use and contribute to this model to enhance the understanding of automatic buying.
Executive functions (EF) and oral language (OL) are important for learning reading and writing (RW) and for the development
of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.
Social anxiety is one of the most frequent mental health problems and there is no consensus regarding the relation between social skills and anxiety. This study aimed to compare the behavioral indicators of social skills presented by university students with social anxiety in relation to a non-clinical group, and to verify the predictive value of the social skills for social anxiety. Participants were 288 university students, 144 with Anxiety Disorder and 144 non-clinical. Social skills were assessed using the QHC-University (Social Skills, Behaviors and Context Assessment Questionnaire for University Students) and the IHS-Del-Prette instruments. Mental health indicators were assessed through screening and diagnostic instruments. Through univariate and multivariate analysis an association was found between social skills and anxiety, highlighting public speaking, potential, difficulties, and the total social skills score as predictors of social anxiety, which contributes to demonstrating the role the resources and difficulties play in this.
This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1) and 11 the comparison group (G2). Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.
Experimental studies have shown positive effects of dialogic reading of picture books (reading aloud interspersed
with prompts and feedback for verbalizations by the listener) on the vocabulary and verbal expression of small children.
This study assessed the effect of dialogic reading on the comprehension of a children’s novel by three children aged 7-8
years, using a single-subject reversal design. In Condition A, the text was read without intervention. In Condition B, reading
was interspersed with dialogic interventions based on narrative functions. Comprehension was superior in all measures in
Condition B for the two participants who underwent the B-A-B design, however, not for the participant who underwent
the A-B-A design. We discuss possible interactions of dialogic reading with characteristics of text genre and the need for
systematic replications with more sessions and reversals of conditions.
This study addresses the inclusion of artistic activities in the context of after-school programs. We consider it important to map and investigate how the inclusion of these activities, as well as relationships between young individuals and education institutions, have been discussed. Theses and dissertations, available on the CAPES platform between 2000 and 2012, the themes of which were artistic activities included in after-school programs, were analyzed. The method used is defined as “State of the Art”. A total of 49 theses and dissertations were found and categories such as main topic and results were analyzed. This analysis highlights new ways of doing research and current opportunities of aesthetic education directed
to young individuals. The results show changes in the lives of young individuals participating in educational projects that
include Art. Enabling access to aesthetic knowledge within formal educational institutions is essential.
The aim was to identify the barriers for implementing the restriction on smoking in psychiatric hospitalization services, its impact on the hospitalized smokers, and the positioning of the professionals. Integrative review of 19 articles published (1989-2011) in MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Descriptive analysis was carried out. The studies revealed that the main barriers for the implementation of the restriction were: beliefs in the patients’ increased aggressiveness, damage to the professional-patient relationship, and lack of preparation to address the theme. After the implementation, the restrictions showed a positive impact: reduction of cigarettes smoked, increased motivation to quit smoking, and more attempts to stop smoking. The professionals who smoked and those who did not believe that quitting smoking benefits mental health patients were those that least supported the implementation of the restrictions. In conclusion, the restriction on smoking is effective in psychiatric hospitalization, as it provokes an attitude of change in mental health patients.