The probabilities of the occurrence of individual hazardous weather phenomena and their complexes in the city of Tbilisi were studied: hot days, strong winds, heavy winds, fog, hail, blizzard. The most common of the phenomena under consideration are hot days. Even in spring and autumn their probability is quite high, and in summer it reaches 0.83. During the cold season, there is a high probability of fog. Strong winds occur at all times of the year. Their probability is not very high, but is characterized by a significant coefficient of aggressiveness. Hail is especially aggressive and occurs in the warm season. The likelihood of a snowstorm developing is negligible.
Possible social and economic risks associated with these phenomena have been identified. Both social and economic risks are greatest from fog and strong winds. In winter, the economic risk from fog per incident can be more than 3.6 million US dollars, in the fall - more than 2.3 million US dollars. The social risk from strong winds is greatest in spring, although the risk is also significant in other seasons. The economic risk from strong winds in spring exceeds $2.6 million, and in winter exceeds $2 million. These phenomena occur several times throughout the year, so the economic risk can range from several to tens of millions of US dollars per year.
A catalog of hurricanes over the territory of Georgia for the period 1961–2022 has been compiled, containing the period of onset, geographical coordinates of the epicenter, speed, magnitude, intensity, area of distribution, material damage, human casualties. Over the entire study period, about 1600 cases of hurricane winds were recorded. During the year, hurricanes occur on average 20 times, with the highest number of cases recorded in 2002 – 81. The average speed of hurricane winds in general for Georgia is 36 m/s, the highest speed reached 56 m/s. The average hurricane area is about 1200 sq. km, and the maximum hurricane area exceeds 10000 sq. km. There is no clear relationship between the hurricane area and the corresponding material damage, which can most likely be explained by the heterogeneity of the level of urbanization of comparable areas that experience varying degrees of damage. The long-term changes in hurricane activity reveal a cyclical nature, which can be explained by the peculiarities of atmospheric circulation. In general, over the entire period there has been a tendency for hurricane activity to weaken.
This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the tropopause height and temperature over the Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin using multi GNSS-RO (Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation) data. The findings reveal an average tropopause temperature and height are 195.341K (±0.166K) and 16.467 km (±0.079 km), respectively. Monthly fluctuations in tropopause altitude range from 15.898 km (min) in July 2008 to 17.208 km (max) in February 2010. The highest temperatures and lowest altitudes occur from May to September, while the lowest temperatures and highest altitudes are observed from October to April. Tropopause height varies from 15.848 km to 17.208 km, with deviations from the mean ranging from -0.079 km to 0.232 km. Tropopause temperature ranges from 192.647K to 197.797K, with deviations from the mean ranging from -0.166K to 1.893K. The multi-regression analysis shows a significant upward trend in both tropopause temperature and height from 2002 to 2017. The Tropopause temperature increases approximately by +0.2K with an average yearly increase of 0.013K, while the tropopause height shows an upward trend of about +0.1km with an average yearly increase of 0.008km. The annual and semi-annual periods display sinusoidal variations in both temperature and height, with the annual cycle showing a larger amplitude. These findings highlight the impact of global temperature change on troposphere dynamics, emphasizing the importance of monitoring and understanding these changes for climate forecasting in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin.
In recent years, forest fires have occurred frequently in Vietnam due to the influence of climate change and human activities. This paper presents the results of modeling the risk of forest fires in the west of Nghe An province (north-central Vietnam) from remote sensing and GIS data. 09 factors affect the risk of forest fire, including vegetation cover (NDVI index), soil moisture (NMDI index), elevation, slope, aspect, wind speed, land surface temperature, average monthly precipitation and population density are used to build a model for mapping forest fire risk based on Suppor Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The past forest fire data is collected from the database of the Forest Protection Department (Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) to evaluate the accuracy of the model. Different values of cost parameter (C) are tested to select the value with the highest accuracy in predicting forest fire risk. The results obtained in the study can be used effectively for monitoring and early warning of forest fire risk in the localities, helping to reduce damage caused by forest fires.
Sam Son has over 17 kilometers of coastline, making it advantageous for marine tourism and resort tourism. However, various types of research have confirmed that climate change has impacted on tourism activities. The change in shoreline can have a significant impact on tourism infrastructure, as it can alter the accessibility, safety, and attractiveness of coastal destinations. The aim of the paper is to analyze the shoreline change rate over 33 years (1989−2022) and its impacts on tourism in Sam Son. Multi-temporal satellite images were used to extract shorelines, and Digital Shoreline Analysis Systems (DSAS) was used to detect the rate of shoreline change. The results indicated that the shoreline change of Sam Son can be divided two parts, including the Hoi estuary zone and the Do River estuary area. In the Hoi estuary, the erosion rates range from -2.22 m/yr to -40.32 m/yr. Buiding FLC Sam Son for tourism is one of the causes of loss of sedimentation in this area. Additionally, in the Do River estuary, the rate of accretion has significantly increased, reaching to 9.7 m/yr. This phenomenon of sediment accumulation is the foundation for building resorts to serve tourism in Sam Son.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the formation of the hydrological regime of the mountain rivers of the Sochi Black Sea region. Due to the peculiarities of the geomorphology and relief of the region, as well as climatic conditions, the main zone of river flow formation is the high-mountain and mid-mountain part of the river basins. Thus, the Mzymta river in the winter period of the hydrological year (from November to March) has a minimum flow, and the average increase in flow is 2 times in the warm season (from April to October). The remaining rivers of the region, due to the predominant rain supply, are characterized by increased runoff in the cold season.
There are analyzed the features of the flow formation along the length using the example of two main rivers of the region that have flow observations (the Mzymta and Sochi rivers). From the graphs of changes in water flow rates and total runoff layers, it was found that the greatest water content of rivers falls on the average flow of the river. At the same time, a third of the length of the rivers, which fall on the low-mountain and low-hilly zones, significantly loses flow to the formation of intra-pebble runoff. The most significant in this regard are the values of the runoff on the Sochi River, which give a zero increase in water consumption from the 15-km estuary part of the basin (58 km2 is an increase in the catchment area).
The rural settlement of Vranještica is located in the northeastern part of Montenegro. It extends in the zone 42 ° 47´ 09 "north latitude and 19 ° 37´ 35" east longitude. Except for the road Andrijevica – Trešnjevik – Mateševo – Kolašin, no other important road intersects or touches this rural settlement. The spatial distribution of the studied space is determined by natural and social characteristics. The relief of Vranještica was formed mainly in the Tertiary. Thus, high mountains were created on one side, and hanging valleys and alluvial plains on the other. The greatest importance in terms of hydrography is represented by Vranještička River and Suvogorska River, which are still waiting for different possibilities of exploitation. With increasing altitude, the productive ability of the pedological composition decreases. Diverse flora and fauna have adapted to climatic, hydrographic and pedological conditions. When it comes to social characteristics, our research records highlighted several evident problems: the first is related to the population, ie its aging; others, that there is a pronounced migration of the population – whose intensive processes and stratification have left behind an unfavorable age structure of the population, which has all negatively affected the socio-economic development of the rural settlement of Vranjestica.
The expedition works were held in the territory of the Madneuli enterprise of Kvemo Kartli region in 2020, where brown soils are spread. In order to study the migration of heavy metals in the soil, taking into consideration the wind direction, the samples of soil was taken from 0-100 (0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100) cm depths, in North from the source of pollution direction (Background) – weak winds direction, 500 m from the enterprise and in the direction of a strong wind in the West and 300 m from the enterprise. In the soil samples were determined general forms of heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, As, Ag, Cr, Fe by Plasma-emission spectrometer at ICP-OES.
The quality of some heavy metal contamination of soil is revealed in connection with Clark; In contaminated areas, the relatively high concentrations of heavy metals are observed in the upper layers, which are due to the prevailing winds. in the samples taken from the north (background-weakest wind direction) heavy metal content were less. Specifically, from the background and contaminated areas the copper content with 0-10 cm layer 63.22 (1.4) and 324.13 (6.9) mg/kg; 80-100 cm depth decreases copper content and is 22.15 and 156.17 (3.3) mg/kg. Similar situation is in case of zinc.
Migration of heavy metals is reduced by increasing depth and approximately 1-5 times exceeding the relevant background importance.
In the samples taken from the background areas, some metals (cadmium, arsenic and silver) are high content, which is due to their existence in the soils of the region. At the same time, it is noteworthy that their Clark indicator is low and therefore 0.13; 1.7 and 0.07, which leads to increasing the Ratio concentration of these metals in relation to Clark.
As it appears from the data, the soil meets in the categories of copper, zinc and arsenic in the category of slightest pollution (<10) category; In cadmium and silver cases – in average pollution (10-30); And the concentrations of lead, manganese, nickel, cobalt and chromium do not exceed Clark.
Correlation links are investigated between the concentrations of different metals in the upper layers of the soil. The correlation coefficient is the largest between Cu and Zn concentrations. It is positive and equals 0.77, determination Coefficient (R2) is 0.58 among the Cu-Zn concentrations. Correlation coefficient between Cu and Co concentrations are 0,62, determination coefficient of Cu-Co concentrations is 0.38. In all other cases the correlation coefficient is negligible and can be neglected.
The impact of climate change on a particular species can ripple through a food web and affect a wide range of other organisms. Climate change and shifts in ecological conditions could support the spread of pathogens, parasites, and diseases, with potentially serious effects on human health, agriculture. Climate change, along with habitat destruction and pollution, is one of the important stressors that can contribute to species extinction. It has been established that the most vulnerable system is the Black Sea coastline, which has a strategic importance for the rehabilitation of the country’s economy and development of foreign trade.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the hydrological regime of small rivers of the Black sea coast of the Caucasus, located in the mid-mountain and low-mountain zones. Based on the GIS-technologies, maps of the distribution of high-altitude zones of these rivers' basins with hypsographic curves have been developed. For the mid-mountain zone of the Sochi Black sea region, the analysis of the hydrological regime of the Psiy river basin with a catchment area of 20.4 km2 and an average height of 664 m above sea level (a tributary of the Shakhe river) is given. To characterize the low-mountain hydrology, we consider the Kuapse river catchment area with an area of 14.6 km2 and an average height of 322 m, which flows into the Black sea. It was found that the input part of the water balance of these rivers in the form of precipitation measured at weather stations in the estuaries of rivers is understated due to the high-altitude zoning of catchments. To account the influence of this factor, the correction coefficients were calculated equal to an increase in precipitation by 4.5 % for every 100 m of elevation in the mid-mountain zone, and by 17.3 % per 100 m of elevation in the low – mountain zone.
As a result of calculations for the mid-mountain zone, it was found that for r. Psii the main part of the balance is occupied by shallow-water ground nutrition – in total, it reaches 66 % with slope runoff. The total evaporation here is about 1/3 of the balance.
For the low-mountain zone, the annual water balance of the Kuapse river basin is as follows: in mm of layer 3520 = 1539 + 1981 or in % 00=44.0 + 56.0. Here precipitation is spent on 44 % on runoff, and 56 % is spent on total evaporation. During the cold period, more than half of the precipitation goes to runoff, and only 45 % − to total evaporation. During the warm period, out of 1644 mm of precipitation, 533 mm (31.0 %) is spent on runoff, and the remaining 1111 mm (69.0 %) is total evaporation.
The Trešnjevik smail river springs at the foot of the Trešnjevik pass (1573 m above sea level), formed by "Water Source" and "Smaller Watercourse". In the upper course, on the left side, it receives small streams from the localities of Garevina and Osoja, while in the middle course, it receives streams Lomovi 1 and Lomovi 2. It flows into Rajova (Rajović) Rijeka near alluvial plains Milićević and alluvial plains Rajović. In the middle course, the Trešnjevička River on the left side formed the alluvial plain of Novović, at the foot of Lomovi a small alluvial plain on the right and left side and the most widespread in the basin of Rajova (Rajovića) River – alluvial plains Milićević. In Trešnjevičkoj smail river their habitat in the river and found the brown trout, which at the present time there are less and less. There are many reasons for the poor state of the brown trout. The two most destructive techniques are dynamite hunting, followed by net hunting. On Trešnjevik environment and you can spend a great time – skiing, walking, doing sports or hunting and fishing, and the environment itself is a great choice for all kinds of recreation in nature, as well as for all lovers and admirers of almost untouched nature.
Based on the observations of 12 meteorological stations, the statistical structure of heat and cold waves in Georgia has been investigated. The average continuous, total, and longest wavelengths, the probability of their realization, the distribution area, and the repeatability period are determined. The long-term course of the total duration of the waves of heat and cold is investigated. The rate of change, the coefficient of determination and the criterion for the statistical significance of changes were estimated.
The average total duration of heat waves per year in Georgia ranges from 13-20 days, with a maximum on the Black Sea coast and in the mountains. The total duration of cold waves is 10-14 days, with a maximum on the Black Sea coast, in the Colchis Lowland and on the plains of Eastern Georgia. The greatest total duration of heat waves is 40-90 days, and the greatest total duration of cold waves is 20-50 days.
The continuous duration of heat waves ranges from 6-11 days and averages over the territory of about 8 days, and the duration of cold waves ranges from 6-8 days and averages 7 days, which is in good agreement with the process of transformation of air masses.
In 2019, in Ambrolauri municipality, the level of soil contamination with arsenic as a result of exposure to hazardous industrial waste containing arsenic of the Racha Mining Chemical Plant was studied. In particular, a study was conducted on arsenic contamination of the soils of the villages Uravi, Abari, Utseri, Likheti and Sori Valleys.
According to the results of the study, of Uravi soils are the most polluted in arsenic;
There is less arsenic pollution in the village of Utsera, Sori Valley and the village of Likheti (average level of pollution);
The village of Abara is relatively clean, a small area where arsenic contamination was observed.
It should be noted that in all cases the arsenic content is higher in the soil top (0-5 cm depth) than in the lower layer (5-20 cm depth). The health condition of the population of Ambrolauri municipality has been revealed.
Based on the 2016 statistical data of the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, the population of Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti among the regions of Georgia has the first place in terms of malignant tumours and diabetes.
The extreme events resulting from climate change are discussed: floods, decline of fresh water and land resources, draughts, crop failure, desertification, etc. The reasons causing climate change are examined, main of them being the anthropogenic increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Its absorption is possible only by green vegetation through the process of photosynthesis, as a result of which large amount of oxygen is produced being a principal source of existence for all living organisms. Forest is rich in many kinds of food and medical products. It is a protector of water and land resources as well as a filter for purifying air and the water.
The importance of forest cover in mountain regions is described, where it protects settlements, roads and fields from floods and mudflows, erosion processes, landslides and avalanches. Forest is regulating the water regime of mountain rivers curtailing floods and preventing them from drying up.
The data are presented on the state of forest cover in Georgia and the world over. Resulting from unsystematic felling forests are becoming sparse, are losing their protective functions, thousands of plant and animal species are wiped out. In all settlements the population and local authorities must care for reforestation and afforestation that will facilitate the reproduction of animals and birds, increase in crop capacity and the development of resort-recreational, and ecotourism activities. While planting the forests useful kinds should be chosen and cutting dawn must be permitted for only elderly and sick trees and considering the amount of annual accretion.
Very important is the raising of public awareness. Only the knowledge, correct education and love to the nature may save the biosphere and environment from the destruction and produce economic and social prosperity.
Due to global warming and the Earth’s overpopulation, vital fresh water resources are expected to suffer irreplaceable losses; thus, fresh water shortage is the most acute problem of our time.
The paper presents the characteristics of the state and problems of freshwater resources, there is a large disproportion in their distribution. Having studied the long-term dynamics of river water flow, it was found that with increasing intensity of the Caucasus glaciers’ melting, river water flow increases here while in non-glacial zones, it decreases. Numerical values of their annual changes have been established.
Particularly acute problems of water scarcity are expected in eastern Georgia, where, due to the dry climate, the shortage of irrigation water will lead to a decrease in yield – the source of livelihood of the local population. Expected droughts will contribute to desertification processes. Therefore, it is necessary to rationally use the available water resources and take measures to replenish them in order to overcome the expected economic and social crisis and ensure environmental safety.
The wind regime of one of the regions of Georgia-Imereti, located in its central part, on the southern winding slope of the Greater Caucasus, is systematized. The repeatability of the prevailing wind directions is established. According to the monthly average data, the repeatability of the winds of the eastern regions reaches 53 %, and the repeatability of the winds of the western regions is 43 %. At night, the frequency of easterly winds increases to 69−70 %, and the frequency of westerly winds is greatest in the afternoon, amounting to 40−50 %.
The highest average annual wind speed is observed in Mta-Sabueti and is 9.2 m/s where the wind speed throughout the year is quite high, amounting to 7.9-10.6 m/s. Increased wind speeds in Kutaisi up to 5 m/s are due to the phenic effect, in other places the average annual wind speed mainly does not exceed 3 m/s.
The range of changes in the average annual number of days with strong winds ranges from 12 (Korbouli) to 162 days (Mta-Sabueti). The maximum number of days with a strong wind was recorded in Mta-Sabueti-222, in Kutaisi the maximum number of days with a strong wind is 124, and in other places it ranges from 40−80 days.
Based on the observations of 60 meteorological stations of Georgia for the period 1936-2015, the effect of air temperature on the pattern of changes in precipitation during global warming was investigated. The regression equations for calculating the characteristics of precipitation depending on the characteristics of temperature were obtained. In the long-term series of temperature and precipitation, oscillations of opposite cyclical nature with the duration of the Brickner cycle were revealed.
The correlation between the amount of precipitation and temperature is mainly negative and significant with a confidence of 0.99 or 0.95, with the exception of July, when these characteristics are uncorrelated in Western Georgia.
The interrelation of the rates of change in temperature and precipitation under global warming is also negative and well manifested in all seasons of the year and in terms of a year, but in the cold period of the year a positive relationship prevails.
Climate change is an important consequence of the land degradation. There is an urgent need to manage the rapidly changing dynamicity of the earth surface in a sustainable way. Garbeta block of West Medinipore has been chosen for the study to identify the sources of landform vulnerability which is severely affected by rill and gully erosion. Land use and land cover analysis of three distinct years has been computed which clearly shows the increase of dry fallow land over the region from 1989 to 2018 making it more assailable to sheet and rill erosion during the monsoonal period and encourage poor ground water recharge. An association map between land use/land cover and elevation has been prepared using GIS software and Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) to find out the dominancy and similarity of a particular physical and human activities over the region according to the relief. The environmental indices like Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) has been prepared to analyse the ecological stability of the region. Therefore land use and land cover analysis is an important tool for the policy makers and stakeholders to implement conservation schemes in the light of sustainability.
The analysis of the current state of agriculturally developed steppe landscapes of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan with the indication of such environmental problems as deflation, water erosion and soil salinization is given. Using the steppe areas of Altai Krai as a case study, the peculiarities of landscape formation are discussed, and the meteorological data for the lowland part of the region are analyzed. Based on these data, a climatic trend is determined and compared with the global one. It is concluded that the regional climate changes, associated with aridization, lead to the enhancement of deflation processes. To stabilize the processes, it is proposed to use agricultural and forestry techniques. The current state of forest plantations in Altai Krai is investigated according to their functional use, species and age composition. The estimated data on the optimal areas of protective forest strips for arable land are given.
Based on observations from more than 20 meteorological stations, we investigated the number of days with precipitation of 50 mm and more, the maximum daily and maximum five-day precipitation, periods of precipitation, probability and intensity on the territory of Georgia. A classification of intense precipitation has been carried out and a map of the maximum intensity of precipitation has been developed. The trends of the long-term change in the climatic characteristics of extreme precipitation are estimated, some statistical differences in mean values of characteristics for different averaging periods are revealed. The obtained results expand our understanding of the geography, structure and dynamics of the characteristics of catastrophic precipitation in the territory of Georgia.