Study of Clinical Profile of Tetanus Patients at ID & BG Hospital, Kolkata.
Authors: Sinha A, Seth BC, Ali MH, Mondal K, Bhattacharya R
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Background: Tetanus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries though it is rare in developed countries. Individual and social consciousness ‘about the care of wound and need of immunization are the prime factors for prevention. Knowledge about the need of active and passive immunization for wound is still not encouraging. Materials and methods: This one year study was conducted among the patients admitted at IDBG Hospital, Kolkata with tetanus. Site of entry, incubation period, on-set time, clinical presentation, complication and outcome were measured. The socio economic status, age and sex distribution, seasonal variation, consciousness about the preventive measures among family members or relatives were analyzed. Results: Among total 134 patients, 39 died (29.10%). Male : female ratio was 1.43 : 1, mean and median age of presentation was rural-urban ration was 4.36 : 1, 73.13% was below poverty level and 26.86% was above, poverty level. Most of the patients were admitted in the months of January, April and July. Wound of entry were 52.40% in lower limbs, 20.89% were in upper limbs, 11.94% in the ear and 11.94% were unknown. Immunization status was complete in 11.19%, in-complete in 75.37% and never taken in 13.43%. No cases were taken immunoglobulin. Awareness about the need of active and passive immunization among patients above 10 yrs were 50% and 0.1% respectively, among family members or relatives were 62.23% and 0.1%. Conclusion: Tetanus is a preventable disease and to prevent it, more awareness in the society is needed. Teaching of proper wound care and immunization are to be emphasized among the common people and health care delivery staffs. The need of booster dose is to be stressed.
Key words: Clostridium Tetani, APL-Above proverty line, BPL-Below proverty line, Trismus, Rigidity