This article is based on frequent attendance at Ehli Haq assemblies (cem) between the years 1972 and 1992, particularly among the communities of Sahne, Kermanshah and Tehran belonging to the Shah Hayasi and Ateş Begi families (khandan). The descriptions of how the rituals take place are informed by reference to the sacred texts Serencam or Daftar in order to bring out their deeper meanings. Overall, the cem is not only a devotional assembly which follows precise rules, but above all a way of attracting the presence of elevated souls, of essences (zat) which manifested themselves in a time that has become mythical: The Forty, the Seven, the theophanies (like Ali and Soltân). The cem are led by bards (kelamhan) who sing litanies (zikr, kelam) to the accompaniment of the tanbur lute which is highly respected. The repertoire includes makam which bear the name of the great saints Ehl-i Haq, and are rarely performed for a secular audience. In certain cems, music and songs induce ecstatic states and an atmosphere which gives full meaning to the notion of “sacred”.
Several centuries of secrecy and the continuation of oral tradition, accompanied by unfavorable social and religious circumstances, such as the deplorable state of Iran’s communication and transportation infrastructure that limited the religious exchange among Ahl-i Ḥaqq in remoted areas, political instability of the region and periodic changes in geographical borders and as a result change of the official religion, accompanied by or resulting in several tribal and religious wars, the appearance of new Ahl-i Ḥaqq theophanies followed by the establishment of new leading families (khāndān), and a number of other social and cultural factors including differences in language and tribal traditions led to a heterogeneity in Ahl-i Ḥaqq groups in the 19th century. The composition of the Shāhnāmih-yi Ḥaqīqat emerged within this complex social context characterized by both interreligious and intrareligious discourses. Shāhnāmih-yi Ḥaqīqat is well-suited for exploring the tradition of Ahl-i Ḥaqq and the religious collective identity of this heterogeneous community as it seeks to compile the entire oral tradition of Ahl-i Ḥaqq and present it publicly. The objective of this research is to review the Ahl-i Ḥaqq tradition in the mirror of Shāhnāmihyi Ḥaqīqat and explore the various elements, patterns, topics, or concepts that demonstrate the religious collective identity of Ahl-i Ḥaqq.
The deep-rooted and extensive literature of the Yarsans can be assumed as the forerunner of Kurdish literature. This literature, which started orally, has been passed down from generation to generation for centuries. They are not well known outside of their own society as they forced to live their culture and beliefs in secret for social, political, ethnic and religious reasons. The poems called kalam in the Yarsans were written down in the 15th century and mainly focused on themes such as social life, belief and ritual. There are many poets who have words in Yarsan literature and women have an important place among these poets, at the same time the words of women are seen as sacred. Reincarnation (dûnadûn) is the basis of this belief, so there is equality between men and women since the gender of a person in the previous period is not known. These women not only speak words, they have a sitting place in Cem and they also have a share of food. Moreover, the tanbûr, which is considered sacred by the Yarsans, is also played by women and has an important place in this culture. Another important subject of the Yarsan tradition is the symbolic mothers of the Gods, in other words, women who gave birth to their children as virgins like Mary. The problems that these women experienced during pregnancy were expressed in the words and the dialogues they had with the angels who helped them form an important part of this literature.
Ahl-i Haqq; It is an Iranian religious belief with syncretic beliefs, tendencies, traditions, and scriptures, with adherents among Lurca, Gorani, Turkish, and Persian-speaking communities. Ahl al-Haqq are spread in Lorestān and north of it, in the Gūrānī-speaking population areas around Kermanshah. It is estimated that the population with the belief of Ahl-i Haqq is approximately 4 million. About two and a half million of this population are in Iran, while the rest are in Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Lebanon. The two main sanctuaries of the sect, the Bābā Yādigār in Zardeh and the tomb of Sultan Isaac in Perdīvar, are located in the Gūrānī region. The main purpose of the study is to reveal the basic factors and background in the formation of religious and religious holy places, based on the sacred places of the Ahl al-Haqqs, their distribution in Iran, and their religious and religious characteristics. In this study, the research method is descriptive and analytical, and library resources, documents, news and related websites were used for this purpose. This study is important in the literature in terms of contributing to studies aiming to understand and reveal the Ahl-i Haqq and their relations with holy places. As a result of the study, it was concluded that in the belief of Ahl al-Haqq, the holy places are kept separate from the worldly places, they are seen as equivalent to the pilgrimage, and that these places of worship and belief, despite being ignored in Iran, continue their belief principles and rituals in an introverted state.
Bağlama performance practice has entered into an important process of change since the 1980s. In the same years, the change experienced by Alevi cultural identity and its important component Alevi music has been the most important dynamic of this change process. This multi-layered movement, referred as the Alevi Music Revival in many studies, has been guided by a core revivalist musicians who are bağlama performers. On the other hand, a folk music revival developed in the 1990s, the basis of which was the Alevi music revival. Therefore, as an intricate process Alevi/Folk music revival has led to the development of a modern/urban representation understanding and new aesthetic preferences in baglama performance. These new choices point to a new authenticity formation. This study focuses on this field of discourse and practice, which started to form in the 1980s in terms of the performance of bağlama, has expanded until today and differs from other authenticities (local / official / market) in Turkey. In conclusion, it was understood that the process of Alevi/Folk Music Revival points to a process of change and construction of an authenticity in terms of bağlama performance practice; and this construction of authenticity has been shaped on the axis of essentialist-innovative tendencies of the musicians. It has been revealed that the mentioned process of change proceeds in three main axes: 1- The revival of the short-necked bağlama and the bağlama tuning, 2- The revival of Şelpe, 3- The revival of the old instruments: Dede sazı, kopuz, iki telli. In addition, it was pointed that in the revival atmosphere the movements towards new authenticities began to take place.
Among The Archives of the Topkapı Palace Museum of Istanbul, Turkey, there is a handwritten document on the lineage of the Qaramanids, an Islamic dynasty, opposed to the Ottomans that ruled the Middle Taurus in Turkey between the years of 1256-1474 (no. 5719/1). This Ottoman archival document is not yet in the literature of Qaramanid studies. The author of the document and its date are unknown. It was written in Ottoman Turkish. It should also be noted that the document is suitable for Ottoman bureaucratic correspondence in form and style. Due to its writing style, it can be dated to the end of the fifteenth century or the early sixteenth century. It seems that it was prepared by a high-level Ottoman bureaucrat at a date after Qasım Beg's death of 1483. Since Qasım Beg, one of the last rulers of the Qaramanids, died in 1483, it was prepared after this date. The name of Qasım Beg's son is unknown. Ottoman intelligence learned that this person was living in Cairo, Egypt, with his two sons. During the Ottoman-Mamluk wars in Syria and Southern Anatolia between the years of 1485-1491, the members of this dynasty have regained importance for Ottomans politically and militarily.
There are many Abdalan-ı Rum saints in Anatolia who came from Khorasan and played an important role in the conquest of the region. One of the saints who participated in the conquest of Bursa is Abdal Murad. After the conquest of the city, Abdal Murad established his lodge on the slopes of Uludag with the support of Orhan Gazi. Properties were donated to the lodge foundation, especially in Filidar Village. Sources do not give detailed information about the activities of Abdal Murad Lodge until the 17th century. The first detailed information about Abdal Murad Lodge belongs to Evliya Celebi. According to his testimony, Bektashi dervishes served the guests in the enormous kitchen of the lodge. The region where the lodge was located was a recreation area overlooking the city, where notables came and rested. Archive documents give little information about Bektashi officials who worked in the lodge in the 18th century. After Bektashism was banned in 1826, Abdal Murad Lodge was demolished, and the administration of the mausoleum, which was left, was handed over to the Nakshi sheiks. During the 19th century, the Bektashi-Nakshi struggle broke out in the Abdal Murad Lodge. With the efforts of Necib Baba, the furnishing of the Istanbul Karyagdi Baba Lodge, the dervish lodge was again taken under the Bektashi administration. Abdal Murad Lodge was left to its fate after 1925 and was neglected, and was demolished in 1933. The graves of Abdal Murad and his son Abdal Mehmed remained behind. A mosque was built in place of the destroyed dervish lodge during the Republican period. In this study, the historical adventure of Abdal Murad Lodge, Tomb and foundation, which has an important place in mystical life in Bursa, is illuminated in the light of main sources.
The art of calligraphy emerged by using writing and painting together. Despite the fact that there is no prohibition of depiction in the Qur'an, the attitude of the Islamic faith towards painting was effective in the emergence of this art Hurufism and Mevlevi-Bektashis also had an impact on its development. Calligraphy, which is a folk art, is done within the framework of master-apprentice relationship. It is grouped as calligraphies with religious content and mystical content. There are examples of the stork in the form of Basmala, Ali's (R.A.) camel, Ali's (R.A.) human face with the writing of Ali (R.A.), ewer, oil lamp, Ashab-i Kahf, Amentu prayer in the form of a ship. The letters waw in the Amentu ship ornament reflect people rowing. There are examples of the Amentu ship depicted with and without a deckhouse. There the letters waw are used in the sense of "and" and express the believer's belief in Allah, his angels, books, prophets, the Last Day, the good, and the evil. Between the letters waw, the names of the Seven Sleepers are written. Meanings are attributed to some calligraphic ornaments. There are beliefs that it will bring prosperity, luck and provide protection against fire and plague. For this reason, Ashab-i Kahf and Amentu ship decorations are encountered in mosques, houses, coffee houses, and shops In our research, examples of ornaments in which the Amentu prayer is handled in the form of a ship were identified. This form, which is applied to hand drawings, stone, paper, and wood materials, has found a place in Turkish Islamic ornamentation art in several ways. The form was evaluated within the scope of decorative arts and Art History in particular, and its contribution to 19th century ornamentation arts was discussed.
Âşık Pasha explained his thoughts on sufism in his book Garib-nâme written in Turkish on the axis of the unity of God (tawhid). Âşık Pasha expressed his opinions on many subjects related to Sufism, especially God, the universe and human being. Emphasizing the importance of a correct vision of God, Âşık Pasha states that human mind becomes amazed when it realizes its helplessness before the greatness of God’s art. According to Âşık Pasha, the universe that was created as a result of Allah's love and within a certain order, rotates in an effort to reach God. The human beings whom Allah praises them in the Qur'an are the replicas of the universe. All features of the entities in this universe can be seen as hidden in them. For this reason, Âşık Pasha, like many Sufis, considers human being as a small universe (the microcosm). Since the human being is the essence of the universe, he looks like a great book whose contents were written in the hearts. Thus, he can reach God only by taking mystic education. However, in this process, a great struggle takes place between the spirit as the symbol of goodness and the soul as the symbol of evil. In this struggle, whichever seizes the heart, it dominates the human being. As every city or state has an administrator, the human organs also need a manager. According to Âşık Pasha, the ruler of the body city is the mind. Along with burdening the mind with responsibility, Allah has also given His mercy and made all creatures need it. In this study, Âşık Pasha's views on God, the universe and man will be revealed with a Garib-nâme focus. While doing this, his thoughts on the soul, spirit, heart and mind, which constitute the psychological aspect of man, will also be mentioned.
It has been mentioned in many academic and non-academic studies that Seyit Rıza, who was at the center of the rebellion that took place in Tunceli in 1937, wrote a letter to the United Kingdom Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the League of Nations and sought support for the rebellion. In the letters, in summary, the international community is invited to intervene by complaining about the following issues: The Turkish state targeted civilians in Dersim, waged an unjust war, including suffocating gas; Kurds were oppressed, forced to migrate and massacred. Although these two letters have been the subject of many academic and non-academic studies, they have been briefly mentioned and no detailed study has been done on them. In academic studies, the subject is not discussed as a whole, and the views put forward in non-academic studies on the subject have not been discussed with solid sources and justifications. The main research problem of this study is to determine by whom and for what purpose these two letters sent to the British Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the League of Nations were written. Archival documents, memoirs and current research on the subject are the main sources of this study. In the article, firstly, general information about the letters and their contents is given, and then the discussions about these letters are summarized. Finally, the form and content analyzes of the text were made and it was discussed by whom and for what purpose the letters were written by making use of archival documents and testimonies of the period. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the aforementioned letters were written by Mr. Baytar Nuri unaware of Seyit Rıza and sent to the relevant places.
Hāşimī Emīr ʿOthmān, one of the Bayrami Melami sheiks of the 16th century, is the person who institutionalized the understanding of Melami theory with his dervish lodge in Kasımpaşa. One of the most famous works of the author is Ṭariqatname in which he presented his views on sufistic rules and conventions. He made important contributions to the religious-sufistic Turkish literature with his prose and verses. The rules and methods that the followers should obey while entering the order, rules that should be followed during seyr u suluk, behaviors and attitudes that should be obeyed concerning the religious guide and ikhwan are the issues that are mentioned in this important work. Hāşimī first initiated Alā’ al-Dīn from Vize, one of the followers of Bayrami Melami Qutb Sārbān Aḥmad. After that, he started following the orders of Gazanfer Efendī, who was in the same line as Alā’ al-Dīn. After the allegations about him, he initiated to Nūr al-Dīn-zāde, one of the Khalwatī sheiks. All these processes make it both attractive and difficult to analyze his work Ṭariqatname. In his work, there are information and presentations of his views. Our article is made of the introduction section and the three following sections. In the introduction part, the notion of melamet, which affected the sufistic life and understanding in the Ottoman period, is mentioned. The reflection of this understanding in the Bayramiyya sect, the original notions and practices of Bayrami Melami followers are also described in the work. In the first section of the study, information about the life of Hāşimī is presented and his works are introduced. The second section, eight copies that we could determine are introduced and the content of Ṭariqatname is analyzed. In the last section, the work is re-analyzed in the context of Melamiyya. Some findings and discussions about the work are presented to the readers.
Saints are the representatives who constitute the sacred side of the world in which they live and are thought to have extraordinary characteristics. Every element belonging to saints has been accepted as sacred and has been adopted as mediator between God and the servant. There is the same tendency in popular Islam, and for this reason, many legends containing the life stories and miracles of saints have been formed. In particular, the spread of the sanctity of the saints to large masses and the social acceptance of the miracles were ensured by the religious legends with a high persuasiveness. While some of these religious legends spread over a wide geography, some legends spread in confined space. Dedigi Sultan’s legend were also formed in a certain region and the sanctity of the saint was limited only to the confined space where it spread. Dedigi Sultan, who does not have enough information about his historical life, is among the saints of Konya. The information about Dedigi Sultan, who is thought to be descended from Ahmet Yesevi, is mostly based on religious legends. According to the religious legend, Dedigi Sultan appears before us as a saint who is purified of all material feelings that gives pleasure to people and who shows various extraordinary things. The religious legend includes both his legendary life and various beliefs and cultural elements. Thus the miraculous motifs in the religious legend of Dedigi Sultan were classified and given the universal motif numbers. A cultural analysis was made on the miraculous motifs identified and the cult of the saint, which is a synthesis of old Turkish beliefs and Islam, which has been carried from the past to the present, has been revealed.
Poetry magazines are very exceptional in our culture and literature history in that they contain the poems of any poet published in his own work or in different places, as well as unearth poems that are not found in any source. The missing parts of the poet's divan are completed by revealing his poems, which are not found in the divan he created while the poet was alive, or in the copies written in the following periods, through the journals and with the efforts of the researchers. Thanks to these poems in the magazines, the stages in the poet's art can also be followed. One of the poets whose poems have been reached in many magazines with the studies done is Yesârî from Batumi. In this study, poems with the pseudonym of Yesârî in the journal registered at number 171 of the Galata Mevlevihanesi Collection of the Süleymaniye Library are discussed. Although the first 232 pages of the journal, which has 348 pages, were studied, the last 116 pages were not studied. 99 of 124 poems with the pseudonym Yesârî in the journal have been published. It has been determined that 23 of the total 25 poems in the said mecmu are not included in any study conducted on behalf of Yesārī, and although 1 ghazal and 1 koumma are included in different sources, they have differences with the poems in the mecmua. These differences are disclosed in the footnote by way of comparison. Since there is more than one poet with the pseudonym Yesārī in our literature, although it is not certain to which Yesārī the poems belong, the translations of the poems are included in this study in order to contribute to new studies on Yesārī.
Although Islamic historical sources contain many documents and claims about how the murder of 3rd Caliph Hz. Uthman took place, the identity of almost all the names involved in the event is known. In this study, the attitudes of Hz. Ali and Muawiya towards the people involving in the murder of the caliph are discussed. It has been claimed that Hz. Ali, who became caliph after the assassination of Hz. 'Uthman, did not punish those who were involved in the murder of Hz. Uthman, and therefore encouraged and approved of his murder. The most obvious reason for this is the claim that some of those involved in the murder were among those who fought against Mu'awiya in the ranks of Hz. Ali in the events that developed later. Thus, the allegations that Hz. Ali was unable to identify the murderers of Hz. Uthman for various reasons or that he wanted to punish them but had to postpone the matter due to the events that took place are disputed. On the other hand, Mu'awiya's accusation that Hz. Ali, whom he saw as an opportunity to strengthen himself politically on his way to power, had the murderers around him is the dilemma of the issue. For these reasons, the issue has constantly remained on the agenda. In our study, the historical context was taken into consideration with the method of source scanning and the psycho-social aspects of the events were taken into consideration and interpretations were made. In addition to the basic sources on the subject, modern studies were also reviewed and the issue was tried to be handled from a holistic perspective.
In this study, is given brief information about three of the oldest dervish lodges identified in Kosovo and their affiliations. These lodges are affiliated with Bektashi, Halveti and Qadiri orders. Other orders were specified only by their names and number of lodges affiliated to them. The backbone of the study is a notebook belonging to Sheikh Mehmed Sezâî. The notebook in question, which was opened vertically, was discovered by the authors of the study during a visit to the Kadirî Lodge of Pristina in 2013. The work, which was allowed to be scanned at the time of its detection, was transcribed a few years later. It was understood that it was a periodical containing verse text belonging to different poets. Determining that there was no criterion in the selection of the verse texts included in the notebook and noticing occasional spelling errors, it was concluded that this notebook was a poetry compilation book. Since some words unique to Old Anatolian Turkish were used in the poems written as Nazîre (parallel, imitation) although these poems belonging to Sezâî were written in the 20th century, the orthography was adhered to during transcription; therefore, no study was carried out to adapt it to the phonetic features of 20th century Turkey Turkish, especially in the field of derivational and inflectional affixes. In the analysis after transcription, we have given brief information about the form and content of the book, besides some linguistic and orthographic features of Sezâî's poems and emphasis on some concepts used. Only a few of his poems, which were determined to belong to Sezâî in this book, were selected and included in the study. Not all of the poems were included in the study as this would exceed the limits of this paper.
Hacı Bektaş Veli is a Turkish Sufi who came to Anatolia from Horasan. His efforts in the Turkification and Islamization of Anatolia cannot be ignored. One of the remarkable characteristics of Hacı Bektaş Veli is is his educator personality. He was an important public educator of his time. Hacı Bektaş Veli had the qualities that an educator should have, and it is known that he was the preparer of a curriculum program called Dört Kapı Kırk Makam. The aim of his curriculum program is to raise the perfect people that societies need in every century. Hacı Bektaş Veli had in-depth knowledge of Sufism and the skills to manage the learning-teaching process effectively. It is known that he brought the following life skills to the society in adult education: Education in mother tongue, teaching learning, social and citizenship skills, constructive involvement in society, cultural awareness, expressing emotions through music and literature. These achievements of his enabled the continuation of a multicultural life in Anatolia. The Ottoman Empire, which was established after his death, benefited greatly from Hacı Bektaş Veli's unifying personality. Another important achievement of Hacı Bektaş Veli is the Bektashism sect founded under his name. Members of this sect worship together, men and women. Disciples are accepted into the sect with a special ritual. In addition to being places of worship, Cemevleri serve as centers of knowledge and wisdom. In other words, they are dervish lodges where adult education is still carried out.
The Masnavi of Mihr u Vefâ, the work of Ummî Îsâ, was written in hijri 774 (1372-73). Mihr ü Vefâ masnavi, which is a work of love and adventure, is almost completely decorated with fairy tale motifs and elements. According to the plot of Mihr ü Vefâ masnavi, when a sultan named Filekavs in Anatolia passed away, his inheritance was divided among his three sons. The little prince Vefâ leaves the country when he finishes his gold. The fortune teller he consulted to, says that he will find a treasure with forty rooms and a beautiful girl. Vefâ finds Mihr and the treasure with forty rooms. But when he secretly opens the forbidden fortieth room, the wind blows one of the shirts of the talking trees off, then disasters begin. In this article, the resurrection motif of Mihr u Vefâ masnavi that is decorated with fairy tale motifs, the elements of resurrection and the contribution of Khidr on this subject, was examined. The resurrection motif is seen in two places in the story. Firstly, the leaves of the trees of the forbidden garden resurrect dead people. Secondly Khidr resurrect the main character. Khidr, who came to the aid of people in difficult situations and saved them from trouble, is seen in two places. Firstly, Khidr rescues Mihr and her nanny that were kidnapped by the enemies. Secondly, the witch who was sent to bring the owner of the shirt, comes to the palace of lovers and kills Vefâ by cutting her throat and takes Mihr and brings her to the sultan. The middle prince, comes to his palace and screams when he learns that his brother has been killed. At that time Khidr suddenly appears. Thanks to Khidr’s pray to Allah, Vefâ is resurrected.
Elvan Çelebi Mosque and Tomb is located on the Çorum-Amasya road and in the village of Elvan Çelebi. This study was carried out to determine the perceptions of the people living in Elvan Çelebi village about Elvan Çelebi. For this purpose, the snowball sampling method, which is one of the non-random sampling methods, was preferred in the qualitative study. 14 people participated in the study. Audio recordings of the interviews were made with the consent of the participants. These records were converted into written text and subjected to content analysis. Later, the identified codes were brought together with the themes. As a result of the research, it has been revealed that Elvan Çelebi Tomb is accepted as a place of visit by the local people and attracts visitors from the near and even distant regions. In the research, it was determined that the participants did not have enough information about the identity of Elvan Çelebi, they repeated the written information at the entrance of the tomb and perceived the area where the tomb is located as sacred. Participants stated that the shrine is mostly visited by epilepsy patients, those with mental depression, the paralyzed, hopeless patients and those who do not have children. Participants also reported that those who had come to the tomb before and made a wish and had a son named their children "Elvan". Finally, it was revealed in the research that the Elvan Çelebi Mosque and Tomb should be restored in accordance with its original form in order to increase the number of visitors. In addition to contributing to the relevant literature, the research also gave homework to the local people and administrators in bringing the village to faith tourism.
It is a known fact that Iran's geography hosted many dynasties in the 14th century. This period, when the influence of the Mongols gradually slowed down and was only seen as a threat in the regions they dominated, was the stage when popular movements against economic and social injustices began. The Serbedaris, who made a name for themselves as a Shia-based political organization in the city of Sebzevâr in Khorasan in the 14th century, also became the eponym of the new state to be established in the next period. This state, which was institutionalized under the name of Serbedârîs after a political recovery process, acted with a two-headed administrative mechanism: religious and political. Of course, it was the religious wing that played an active role in the uprising of the people and systematized the movement. What is meant by the religious wing was Sheikh Khalifa, who was claimed to be one of the sheikhs of the period. Sheikh Khalifa approached the people with his Shia-based teachings during the rebellion and identity search of the Sarbedaris, additionally systematically included them in the movement. Based on this information, the article deals with the identity and teachings of Sheikh Khalifa, who organized the Sarbedaris in the processes of their search for identity as well as their participation in the political arena.
This study is about the work named Menâkıb-ı Şeyh Safi Musul Order published by Ahmet Taşğın. Taşğın, who has been working on the Iraqi Alevi Bektashis for a long time, has not only revealed the existence of the Alevi Bektashis outside of Turkey, but also revealed that the Buyruk texts are also outside of Turkey. The works carried out by Taşğın in this framework are the first in Turkey. The copy in the city of Mosul, Iraq, which is one of the Commandments included in the literature under the name of Menâkıb-ı Şeyh Safi, was published by Muhammed Hamid Sarraf as a part of the work named Eş-Şebek.
This study, by Prof. Dr. İbrohim Haqqul and Prof. Dr. Nodirxon Hasan It is about Xoja Ahmad Yassaviy: Umrıng Yeldek O’taro, Hıkmatlar published. The study was published by Muharrir Publishing House in Tashkent in 2020. The book consists of two main parts, the Preface and the Wisdom. In the Preface, it has been evaluated under two main headings as Hodja Ahmet Yesevi and Wisdom tradition. Detailed information is given about Hodja Ahmet Yesevi's life, activities, area of influence and the importance of his Wisdom and the tradition of Wisdom. In addition to 142 Wisdom, the section of Wisdom in which Hoca Ahmet Yesevi takes place is included in 73 new Wisdoms, which were scanned from different manuscripts and included in this work for the first time.
This article will present the book “Divan-i Hikmet”, which was published by Yesevi researchers from Uzbekistan, Professor Dr. Ibrahim Hakkul and Professor Dr. Nadir Khan Hassan at the “Nevruz” publishing house in Tashkent in 2018. On this occasion, the book contains extensive information and assessments about the life of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, his family, his scientific education, the emergence of the sect of Yesevism, the origin and development of the tradition of Hikmet, followers of Yasawi, published in Uzbekistan “Divan-i-Hikmet” and their history.
In the study, Caner Işık's work titled "Alevi Erenler Tradition" was introduced. In the work, the data of both oral and written sources have been analyzed by considering the origins and mystical characteristics of dervishes, who have an important place in the tradition. The tradition of Alevi saints has been examined by classifying the saints and dervishes and explaining their functions. In addition, the concepts of poet, minstrel, saz poet, dervish minstrel, folk poet are discussed and their changes and transformations in the historical process are explained. The work is a guide in understanding Alevism in the example of Derviş Ruhan.
This study is based on the title "Hodja Ahmed Yesevi" of Vladimir Alexandrovich Gordlevski (1876-1956), a Soviet orientalist-Turkologist, Turkish language, literature, folklore and Turkish history expert, who has an important place in terms of recognizing the history, culture and spirituality of the Central Asian and Turkic peoples. It consists of a translation of the article. V.A. Gordlevskiy is the author of nearly three hundred works on Turkish language, history, ethnography, folklore and Turkish literature, which he started to study during his many trips to Turkey. Most of the author's articles have not yet been published, although they are of scientific value. The translated article consists of the information Gordlevski gained during his journey to Turkestan, his observations about Ahmet Yesevi, the mosque, the lodge and the private halvethane, and the information in the literature. According to the author, his writings are incomplete and disjointed due to the narrow time and lack of information.
Shortly after the investiture of Shah Ismā’il (r. 907-30/1501-24) in Iran, Twelver Shi'ism was declared the official sect of the state. The Safavids, who identified Twelver Shi’ism as a super-identity in order to ensure internal integration in Iran, invited Shiite scholars from Iraq, Bahrain, and especially from the Jabal alAmil region to Iran to support them in this process. Research on the migration of scholars to Safavid Iran, which began in the West with the work of E. G. Browne, has recently been increasing. One of the studies on this subject is Rula Jurdi Abisaab’s article titled “The Ulama of Jabal ‘Amil in Safavid Iran, 1501-1736: Marginality, Migration and Social Change”. This is a translation of Abisaab’s article on the migration of ulema to Safavid Iran.