One of the most important documents in Hurufi history is a letter known as Saḥīfat al-Istikhlās sent by Amīr Ghiyāth al-Dīn to Mawlānā Ḥasan, a Hurufi darwish. Aḥmad-i Lur attempted to assasinate Shāhrukh, the ruler of the Timurid Empire, in 830/1427. Aḥmad-i Lur was killed on the spot and because of the lettrist books found in his room and the people he met, it was concluded that Aḥmad-i Lur was a Hurufi. Two years later Faḍlallah's grandson Amīr Nūr-Allah and Faḍlallah's caliph ʿAlī al-Aʿlā's nephew Amīr Ghiyāth al-Dīn, considered as the instigators of the assassination were arrested, interrogated, imprisoned and finally escaped from the dungeon. This letter which has a unique copy, describes all these processes in detail. In the letter, the views of the administrators and the scholars of the Timurid period towards Hurufis, and some relations of the Hurufis with Timurids and Qaraqoyunlus are clearly reflected. In addition, it shows that the Timurid rulers and administrators had had very limited knowledge regarding Hurufism. In addition to the historical records of this letter, in which the defendants describe a trial process in the Timurid Empire of the 15th century, it also provides some important information on Hurufi doctrine, such as the jurisprudential sect of Faḍlallah and his family, the difference between them and the followers of Vaḥdat al-Vujūd. This article first of all explains the historical background of assasination attempt and interrogation process. It tries as well to create a chronology relying on the data of the letter. The historical and doctrinal importance of this letter was analysed in detail in this article.
The copies of erkannāma belonging to the Rifā‘ī order, which have survived till the present day, are works dated by the end of the 18th and the 19th century. These works, which provide the opportunity to determine how the Rifā‘ī order was practised in Istanbul and Anatolia, have served as a kind of handbook for the groups affiliated to the order. The fact that most of these copies, which include issues like order ceremonies, spiritual journey practices, khidma (acts of service) levels, were named as Futuwwatnāma is the first sign that Rifā‘iyya is one of the orders dependent on the futuwwa rules. Fütüvvetnāme-i Yāsin er-Rifāī written by Shaykh Yâsin al-Shāmī (end of the 18th century) and Minhācü'l-Müridīn written by Mehmed Tāhir Tophanevī (1812) are the oldest known Rifā‘ī futuwwatnāmas and they have become the source for the ones written later. In the article, the contents of the second chapter of Minhāc have been evaluated and it has been determined that the source of this work is the futuwwatnāma produced by Seyyid Hüseyin ibn Seyyid Gaybī (15th century). The interpretation of Ibn Gaybī's work as a futuwwatnāma with Shī‘ite elements and Abdulbāki Gölpınarlı's claim that Rifā‘iyya, over time, has taken an Alawīte form due to the influence of futuwwa followers have made it necessary to discuss the reasons that brought the Rifā‘īs and futuwwa followers closer. In the second part of the article some factors that may serve as the reason for Rifā‘īs and Shī‘ite-Bāṭinī-Alawīte groups to find common ground are evaluated based on texts, historical events and facts. As a result of this evaluation, it is concluded that the above-mentioned factors have existed since the establishment of Rifā‘iyya and that this is the way the order has spread to Anatolia.
Hacı Bektaş Velî, one of Ahmed Yesevî's Anatolian saints, migrated from Nishapur and settled in today's Hacı Bektaş district. He founded Kızılca Halvet, that is Çilehane, and after his death he was buried next to Çilehane and a tomb was built on it. The tomb structure, which is the center and part of the complex, is located opposite the entrance door of the Hazrat Courtyard, which is the third courtyard of the lodge. Although it is not known when the tomb was built, it is dated to the 15th century. When the dervish lodge and lodge were closed during the Republican period, the kulliye was closed in 1925. After serving as an Agricultural School for a while, it was restored with the 1925 letter of the Ministry of National Education and opened as a museum. It conforms to the original structure numbered 22 May 1964 and 1935. It was arranged in accordance with the original in the repairs made between 1950-1960. Although there is information about Bektashism and Hacı Bektaş Velî in our sources, there is no explanatory information about the historical and artistic features of the tomb and the painted decorations. When we examine the painted ornament patterns that we can see in a renovated state today, it is seen that they belong to the 15th century. At the end of the century, perhaps at the beginning of the 16th century, II. We can see the traces of decoration art of Bâyezid period.
In this article, contrary to the separation of Alevism and Bektashism, the integration of Alevism and Bektashism in the historical process will be discussed. Bektashism did not emerge from the Qizilbāsh, on the contrary, Bektashism and Alevism merged over time. While Kizilbash was common among nomadic Turkmen tribes in Eastern Anatolia, Bektashism was common among Yörüks in Western Anatolia, in Thrace, with the distinction made by the Ottomans. While it is seen that Ottoman nomads are more inclined to settled values and urban culture, it is seen that Alawite-Turkmen under the influence of Shiite-Safavid are more closely connected to nomadic-tribal values. In terms of time, the development of Bektashism as a sect structure and the evolution process of Qizilbāshism to Alevism are also different. Therefore, the view that two completely different phenomena in terms of time and space are seen as parts of the same organism and separated from each other over time does not reflect the truth. It is anachronism to make a general judgment by looking at the common elements between their socio-economic structures and their religious-cultural traditions. There are certain differences between Alevism and Bektashi rituals and cem rituals, and there are fundamental differences between the homogeneous structure of Alevism, which gives importance to lineage, and the heterogeneous structure of Bektashism, which absorbs even non-Muslims. In Turkey, both faith circles came together and fused under the influence of many political and social historical factors. The emphasis of Hacı Bektaş Veli and Shah İsmail to be of Khorasan origin is related to the issue of gaining legitimacy among the Anatolian nomads. The common element that brings these two formations together, which the researchers try to explain with religious syncretism, is undoubtedly Sufism.
Developing technology in our age has opened the doors of a virtual-digital world to humanity. However, the negative effects of this development were seen in a short time. Tradition has been moved away and ethical values have begun to be lost. In order to bring the lost ethical values in Turkish society to new generations with a folkloric point of view, we have introduced Folklogical Metaethics Theory with an interdisciplinary approach in the fields of folklore, ethics and metaethics, and we have developed the method of Folklore Grounding Metaethics Analysis. The works of Hacı Bektaş Veli are very rich in that they contain cultural products that will be useful in updating our ethical values in Turkish folk philosophy, where our ethical understanding shaped by religious tradition is reflected in ethical codes in accordance with our cultural ergonomics. In this study, Hacı Bektaş Veli’s Basmalah Commentary was chosen in order to look at our cultural richness from a different perspective. The subject of the study is to reveal the place of the ethical values of generosity and stealing in the narrative of the Basmalah Commentary of Hacı Bektaş Veli, which is in the category of religious traditions of the theory in folk philosophy. It is aimed to make an exemplary study on the application of Folklogical Metaethics Theory to the works of Hacı Bektaş Veli by revealing the folk ideas in the folklore sense and the propositions in the metaethics sense of the storytelling.
This study examines how the ethical and philosophical views of the Revāqiyya school are reflected in Mevlānā's works, especially in his Masnavi. According to the Revāqiyya, perfect harmony and goodness prevail in the universe. God is the one who provides this order in the universe. If humans live in accordance with this order and nature, they will be moral and happy. If the moral intellect dominates human instincts, the right action can be achieved. In this respect, Revāqiyya morality is directly related to practical life. Revāqiyya's ethics and philosophy have influenced many ideas over time. The analysis shows that the ethical views of the Revāqiyya influenced Mevlānā's thoughts to a great extent. When the topics related to human, soul and morality in the Masnavi are analyzed, it is revealed that there are many similarities between the way Mawlānā and the Revāqīs addressed the topics and their perspectives on the subject. Mawlānā combined the philosophy of man in the Sufi tradition and Islamic moral philosophy in his work Masnawī. The moral principles in the Masnavi aim to create a virtuous moral personality. Mawlānā has analyzed the human being's bāṭin in depth and dealt with his egoistic aspects in all details. Mevlânâ accepts morality as ontological values and rules appropriate to human nature. Mawlānā argues that in order for moral unity and integrity to emerge, the individual must be in harmony with nature, have tamed his nafs, and have achieved the unity of matter and meaning. The Revāqīs dealt with man and morality in the same style and manner.
It is known that Turkmen living in Çanakkale- Ayvacık villages use their traditional clothes on special occasions, weddings, ceremonies and festivals, but it has been observed that very little research has been done in the literature on Turkmen clothing in Çanakkale Ayvacık villages. In line with these purposes, it is aimed to research the identifiable examples of Turkmen clothing in order to document and archive with scientific methods, to introduce them to today's people and future generations, and to reveal their values in terms of clothing. Turkmen brides and women's clothes were researched by conducting field research in Ayvacık villages (Güzelköy, Çiftlik district) of Çanakkale, where Turkmen live widely; their names were identified and defined. As a result of the field research, clothing; It was determined as what were worn on the head, on the back, what were worn on the feet and it were explained how they are used, their symbolic meanings, how they were prepared, and by whom they were worn in which situations. In this context, the issues related to naming clothing based on examples; folklore, socio-cultural situation and were evaluated in the perspective of semantics. It has been observed that in these examples, in Ayvacık villages of Çanakkale, there have been differentiations in clothing with the change of lifestyles over time, and that the new generation's lack of familiarity with the characteristics of Turkmen clothing has been effective in the decrease in demand. Considering that it will help both the promotion of the region and the cultural transfer between generations, the subject has been discussed in terms of the importance, current status and sustainability of Turkmen clothing.
Bektashi order has a deep-rooted tradition, and a long history. This situation was reflected in the Bektashi literature and led to the emergence of rich Bektashi literature. Bektashi poets reflected their cultural background, beliefs, traditions and lives in their poems. Ali İlhami, who was a member of the Bektashi order and who had been a Shaikh for the Seyyid Battal Gazi Lodge for many years, was one of the folk poets who successfully used the methods and principles, subtleties, beliefs and traditions of this order in his poems. It is seen that his poems focus on the love of Allah, Hz. Ali, Hz. Hasan, Hz. Hüseyin, Twelve Imams, Haci Bektashi Veli, Battal Gazi, the Karbala incident, and devotion to the founders of the order and mentors. The topics such as nature, the transience of the world and human love are also handled in his poems. He shaped his poetry with advices such as not following the soul, not seeing the fault of anyone, and abandoning the love of the world. Considering Ali İlhami’s poems, it is seen that these are the poems that overlap with the principles of Bektashi order and support the rites of this path. Ali İlhami's poems were collected by Şükrü Efendi, the grandson of the poet, and arranged as Dîvân-ı Şeyh İlhâmî and Seyyid Battal Gazi. In this study, it is aimed to add a new and rich source to the Turkish folk poetry treasury by transferring 49 poems in the in the printed copy of Ali İlhami’s Divan, one of the 19th century folk poets, written in Ottoman Turkish to Latin letters. In addition, based on the poems in the Divan, how the Bektashi doctrine was handled in İlhami's poetry and how it was expressed was also emphasized.
Akhism was a vital system that not only developed the social, cultural, and political but also was one of the most essential mechanisms of the commercial environment of the 13th century. Akhism contributed the social welfare, market stability, and market security.One of the most visible characteristics of Akhisim was seen that it successfully integrated the financial ethic with all types of commercial affairs. In this study, two basics of the standardization policy including quality of product and price stability that the system mostly improved among the financial ethic were examined in the fıqh references. The standardization policy of Akhism controlling the entire journey of any product that includes production, manufacturing, and marketing contributed to the financial development of the thirteenth century. This standardization policy orders that all products must be produced among certain techniques and principles. Quality standards, market conditions, and precautions taken against deceptive and manipulatory affairs, control and product management are the principles that the Islamic Law system underlines. The Akhi organization not only set a certain quality standard for products but also intervened in marketing prices of supplied products so that products have certain price standards. If any affairs to disrupt the marketing conditions and price stabilities occur, the state is supposed to intervene in the system as it has happened since earlier periods. Thus there is a strong relationship between the intervening commercial policies that were fundamental of Akhism and the price policies that have been followed since the early periods of Islam.
The belief in Ahl-i Haqq was revealed by Sultan Ishak, who was born in Sulaymaniyah in the 13th century. Sultan İshāk migrated to Perdiver, which is located in the Pave region of today's Iran, in order to spread the belief he founded. With the emergence of the Ahl-i Haqq belief, he created a community for himself. The sources that gave the first information about the Ahl-i Haqqs named the community as ʿAlī Ilāhīs. Although this naming is a general name, it is an incorrect usage. The subject of this study is that the Ahl-i Haqq are not ʿAlī Divine in the context of the cult of ʿAlī in the belief of Ahl-i Haqq. The belief in Hulul, which is known as Emergence in the belief of Ahl-i Haqq, caused the community to be known as ʿAlī Divine for a long time. This nomenclature is opposed by the Ahl-i Haqqs themselves, but it does not comply with the principles of belief. The purpose of this study is to explain the belief in the emergence of Ahl-i Haqq and to reveal that the community known as ʿAlī Ilāhīs is not actually ʿAlī Ilāhīs. In accordance with this purpose, the belief in the emergence or hulul in the belief of Ahl-i Haqq is discussed in the context of the fact that the Ahl-i Haqqs are not ʿAlī Divine. The number of these appearances is generally seven. For this purpose, the field study conducted in Iran's Tabriz, Kermanshah and Tehran cities between 2016-2019 was the source of this study. A comparison was made based on the data obtained from the field study and the Kalams, which are the first-hand sources belonging to the Ahl-i ḥaqqs.
Sa'dî-i Şîrâzî, who was one of the significant figures of the Iranian literature, educated in Nizâmiyye Madrasah, acquainted with many poets, sufis and religious scholars, spent most his life with travel, also visited Anatolia during his travels, influenced poets and writers who grew up in Islamic countries with his works. Sa'dî's influence was not only limited to Persian literature, but also left important traces in the western world and in Turkish and Urdu literatures which is why it is possible to see this effect especially in the works written by poets and writers of the Turkish literature since the 14th century. Sa'dî, who was a sufi as well as a poet, made moral expressions in his works - especially in Bostan (Bûstân) and Gülistan - he used a simple, attractive and understandable style while telling his knowledge and experiences in the form of stories and anecdotes and he talked about historical figures from time to time and tried to make the reader understand the way of happiness, the necessity of humanity, the virtue of goodness and righteousness in small stories full of meaning and judgment, supported by verses, hadiths, proverbs and idioms and dealt with subjects such as servitude, discipline, love, affection to Allah (c.c.) and similar topics in an instructive manner, while doing this he used the concepts belonging to many branches of science and arts - especially music - as examples and parable. This paper aims to reveal Sa'dî's understanding of music by mentioning and explaining the stories and instructions in Bostan and Gülistan, in which the concepts related to music are given as examples and parable. The data obtained in our study, in which the document review method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used, was arranged in line with descriptive analysis, interpreted and presented to the readers.
This paper represents the results of the pioneering research work that studied the toponymic heritage of real historical personality like Ahmad Yasawi. It proposed that the name-giver of the city of Turkestan is Ahmad Yasawi by means of conducting intensive toponymic research and by considering Ahmad Yasawi’s ‘Diwan-i Hikmat’ and Suleyman Baqirgani’s ‘Aqirzaman’ as historical documents. Also the research paper analyzes the legends and stories related to the life of Ahmad Yasawi by Bolatbek Qorganbekov and Mashkhur Zhusup as the toponymic legends, which can be considered as etymological foundations of some place names. The author of the current research work made the classification of Ahmad Yasawi’s toponymic heritage, which can be regarded as the first classification of historical personality’s toponymic heritage suggested by scholars. Moreover, the research work discovers Ahmad Yasawi’s deed from a new angle. All place names, which are regarded as the toponymic heritage of Ahmad Yasawi, were divided into three main groups. They are as following: 1. The place names whose author was Ahmad Yasawi himself; 2. Ahmad Yasawi’s, his relatives’, and followers’ graveyards, which are considered here as sacral places of Kazakhstan, and also they are nekronyms that can be accepted as toponymic heritage of Yasawi; 3. The place names which appeared under the influence of Yasawi’s relatives and followers. The total number of toponyms that are classified as Yasawi’s toponymic heritage is 33. They are 13 econyms, 2 hydronyms, one oronym, and 17 nekronyms.
Scientific studies on the legacy of Hodja Aḥmad al-Yasawī (d.562/1166) started with the research of Fuad Köprülü (1890-1966) in the 20th century. Despite many important studies on al-Yasawī and his legacy, it is noteworthy that some important issues related to Aḥmad al-Yasawī’s personality are neglected. There is no clear information about Aḥmad al-Yasawī's date of birth. However, there is definite information about the date of death of al-Yasawī and how long he lived in the pedigree writings. Based on this information, it is possible to determine the year of birth of Hodja Aḥmad. In addition, the idea of whether Yūsuf al-Hamadānī (d. 535/1140) was al-Yasawī's teacher is open to discussion if some medieval sources are consulted. For this reason, we found it appropriate to examine Aḥmad al-Yasawī's year of birth and his scientific personality. In the article, the birth and death years of Aḥmad al-Yasawī were tried to be determined from primary sources, especially family trees. Later, the issue of whether Yūsuf al-Hamadānī was Aḥmad al-Yasawī’s teacher was also examined by comparing the views of the mentioned personalities in their own works. By constantly considering the human factor, the conditions under which al-Hamadānī was associated with Aḥmad al-Yasawī’s teaching were examined with a descriptive method within the understanding of impartiality. In addition, deepening and comparative analysis methods were used on individuals during the study. Some determinations and evaluations were made about Aḥmad al-Yasawī's bibliography and his teachers.
The Golden Horde was founded in 1241 by Batu Khān, the grandson of Chingghis Khān. People of all religions lived in the vast geography of this state, whose borders stretched from the Dniester River in the west to the Irtysh River in the east. From the middle of the 13th century, ṣūfī orders began preaching in the Golden Horde, and in the middle of the 14th century, most people, including the ruling class, converted to Islam. Islam begun to dominate the life of the people and the functioning of the state. Islam was easily accepted by society through the channel of ṣūfism, and this was facilitated by the similarity of ṣūfī spiritual practices with the forms of faith of nomadic peoples. In this process, in particular, the Yasawiyya ṣūfī order, formed by the teachings of Aḥmad al-Yasawī, and the Kubrāwiyya order, founded by Najm al-Dīn al-Kubrā, played a significant role. The dervishes of these two orders spread Islamic culture in the region from Khwārazm to Crimea. Yasawī and Kubrawī ṣūfīs conducted communication work between various religious and ethnic communities of the Golden Horde, as well as carried out informal educational activities in institutions such as khānqāh (ṣūfī convent), zāwiyah (ṣūfī lodge) and madrasahs, using the support of the authorities, and some even participated in wars for the support of Islam. Zāwiyas became a refuge for the population of the Golden Horde in times of crisis and played an important role in ensuring social peace and restoring the country’s sovereignty. Thus, this article will discuss topics such as which orders were active in the Golden Horde, which periods were active, the contribution of ṣūfī sheikhs to the process of Islamization, their place in the administrative system of the state and their spiritual heritage.
Abay Qunanbayuli, is one of the important literary man that has left his mark in the nineteenth century Kazakh cultural life. He is known as the greatest poet of Kazakh Turks. Abay wrote his works in Kazakh Turkish, but since he continues the tradition of Chaghatay Turkish, those who speak Karluk and Oghuz group dialects can easily understand his works. In the work, elements that are rarely used in contemporary Kipchak dialects, but whose origin is Oghuz Turkish, are also found in his poems. Although Aḥmad al-Yasawī's Dīvān-ı Hikmet, who lived long before than Abay, was written during the Karakhanid period, its copies written in Chaghatay Turkish have survived. Despite this situation, we can say that we have come across a few Oghuz Turkish elements from the new copy. In this article, the poets of different periods and regions of the Turkish world, Aḥmad al-Yasawī, Yūnus Emre and Abay Qunanbayuli, were examined by comparing the words specific to Kipchak or Oghuz Turkish. In the study, Yūnus Emre was chosen as the representative of the Oghuz group and Aḥmad al-Yasawī as the representative of Eastern Turkish close to the time of Yūnus. Abay has also been shown as the representative of the Kipchak group more recently. Thus, it was revealed that common elements were preserved in three large groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded that the influence of the linguistic and cultural tradition of the Göktürk, Old Uyghur, Karakhanid, Khwārazm, Chaghatay and Kipchak Turkish periods continues to a significant extent in terms of vocabulary in the written language of both geographies.
This study aimed to examine the ethno-religious situation of Bektashi, Qizilbash and Alevis in Bulgaria after Bulgaria's accession to the European Union, in the example of Alvanlar village (Yablanovo) in Sliven province. It was investigated in the example of Bektashi, Kizilbash, Alevis Alvans (Yablanovo) village in Bulgaria. After a period of ten years, a new research on the village of Alvanlar has been made and the change that has occurred has been followed. Especially after the Republic of Bulgaria's transition to democracy and accession to the European Union, the practices against the Turks, who are among the minorities in Bulgaria, and the developments regarding the non-fulfillment of the cultural rights demands of the Bektashi, Qizilbash and Alevis, who constitute a considerable number among the Turks, have been monitored. After the article gives information about the importance and method of the research, the village of Alvanlar in Bulgarias Sliven Province is briefly introduced. Secondly, information is given about Alevism-Bektashism in Bulgaria, whose history goes back to the pre-Ottoman era. The history of the village of Alvanlar in the province of Sliven, Bulgaria, and the religious and national practices and difficulties faced by the Bektashi, Qizilbash, Alevis of the Alvanlar village are included. Especially in the socialist period of Bulgaria, the center of the struggle, which resisted the systematic oppression and assimilation policy against the Turkish and Muslim people, is the village of Alvanlar/Yablanovo. In this respect, the village of Alvanlar/Yablanovo is an important settlement in Bulgaria both in the transition to democracy and in the preservation of the Turkish-Muslim identity. It is also the center of Ali Koç Baba, his children and Ali Koç Babas Ojak, who both carry and protect the memory of the dervishes who traveled from Khorasan to Anatolia and from Anatolia to Rumelia.
The massive interaction between mankind and the environment has paved the roads of various processes, how to live, how to believe, how to spend, how to plan a future. As a nation who gave great importance to the aforementioned concepts, Turks carried on their ancient traditions and culture in a way which would not contradict Islam and found a harmony after meeting their new religion. While the heroic stories were passed from one generation to another with this new cultural transformation, it created a new form called “Cenkname”, especially after the conditions took place with the conquest of Anatolia. İmam Ali, known for his tremendous heroism in Islam history has been the main figure of the narratives mentioned due to his valor in the mentioned form. Hazrat Ali’s close relation with the Prophet has gained him respect in the heroic stories with his epic features. These attributes given to Hazrat Ali developed as “Cenkname” and continues since centuries. Even after the Ottoman Empire, where “Cenkname” emerged and spread, Hazrat Ali’s Cenknames continued. Also, one of the great poets of the modern Turkish Poem, Sezai Karakoç had a poem, which’s main theme was a Cenkname of Hazrat Ali. Sezai Karakoç tried to express how the Hazrat Ali Cenknames made his friends and himself feel as a child while they were listening to them in his poem “Çocukluğumuz”. This research is based on the aforementioned information, the importance of the concept of heroism, the tradition of “Cenkname”, the importance of Hazrat Ali Cenknames in Turkish culture and their traces in Sezai Karakoç’s poem.
The work we are doing is an important work that contributes to the field of evaluation of the social structure of the Turks living in the town of Babadağ in the province of Tulca of Romania and their perspective on Sarı Saltuk. In this study, interviews were conducted with Turkish families on the socio-cultural structure of the region, religious beliefs and perceptions of Sarı Saltuk. The author analyzed the social memories of the region by interviewing the elderly population living in the Babadağ town center and the villages connected to this town. The elderly population was taken as a sample in the study due to the fact that the young population usually immigrates to European countries and the remaining ones have undergone cultural degeneration to a large extent. In the present work, it was found that Tatar Turks and other Turks living in the region identify themselves as “Turks”, while gypsies, who speak Turkish and who are Muslims identify themselves as “millet” or “Turkish nation”.
Ahmet Yaşar Ocak, in this work, which he puts forward by taking Alevi-Bektashi velayetnames and their breath as a source, claimed that the foundations of Alevism and Bektashism and the elements that constitute the historical backround of the origins of belief consist of , Shamanism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, Taoism; Zoroastrianism and Mazdakism: Chiristianity and Judaism. Thaks to this work, researchers will be able to have information about the sources of belief motifs in both Alevi rituals and menakipnames. The work is a guide in this field.
This work, which has been evaluated, reflects the traditions, historical and mythological backgrounds of the Tahtacılar. The work consists of a history section describing the origins of the Tahtacılar and traditions and living part of describing their daily lives and the cultures. In the study, the author's purpose of creating the work, the methods and the sources that obtain to the data, and the history, traditions and beliefs, given about the Tahtacılar will be evaluated.
The subject of the book we are examining is Hurufism. It is a monographic work translated from English to Turkish. The book is a remarkable work. It contains basic and essential information about Hurufism and Fazlullah Esterabâdi, appeals to the general reader, and uses clear and understandable language. Book; It consists of two prefaces, seven chapters, an appendix/Hurufi literature, reading suggestions, and an index. This study briefly explains the author, chapters, content / the basic principles of Hurufism and its founder.
One of the prominent representatives of Soviet Orientalism Prof. Dr. Ilya Pavlovich Petrushevsky (1898-1977) is known for his studies on the medieval history of Azerbaijan, Central Asia and Iran, especially the development process and characteristics of Eastern feudalism. He has more than a hundred scientific works published during his lifetime. One of the author's well-known works is the paper " The Sarbedar Movement in Khorasan", published in the XIV volume of the series "Scientific Works of the Institute of Oriental Studies of Academy of Sciences of USSR" in Moscow in 1956. The corresponding work was translated from Russian into Persian by Karim Keshavarz and published in Tehran in 1972 as a separate book. In view of the importance of the topic, we considered it necessary to translate the mentioned work of Petrushevsky from Russian into Turkish.The Sarbedar movement, which began in the village of Bashtin in the Bayhak district of the Khorasan region in 1336-1337, soon led to the creation of the Sarbedar state with its center in Sabzavar. This state, which existed between 1337 and 1386, left its mark on history due to the role it played in the political life of Iran, as well as the reforms and practices that it carried out in the social sphere. Petrushevsky, a Marxist historian, studying the Sarbedar movement, mainly tried to pay attention to the socio-economic factors that provoked this process, the class conflict and the struggle for power of various social groups among the Sarbedars, and programmatic differences between them.