This article deals with the Musāhiblik (companionship) institution. The Musāhiblik institution is
available in some lodges (ocak) and groups named Alawi. This institution expresses the brotherhood
of the two married families in the worldly life and the Hereafter. This study is aimed at dealing
with the Musāhiblik institution that provides social solidarity in the past and present and to evaluate
approaches of the Alawi lodges and groups on the issue. The Musāhiblik institution that maintains
influence in some Alawi lodges and groups is nourished from the same sources with many formations
in different regions of Anatolia, for example, Yaren, Barana, Delikanlı Organisation, Gezek, Muhabbet, Oda Organisation, Sohbet, Sıra, Perde, Arfana etc. It is understood that the Musāhiblik is a form
established according to social and religious lives of the Alawi lodges and groups, which are also
shaped by tribe system, lineage, clan and Sufi order life. However, the radical changes experienced
due to modernity, secularization, industrialization, urbanization, specialization, migration and so on
have radically shaken the social corporate structures, such as Dedelik, Düşkünlük, Musāhiblik and
so forth. The transition period experienced in Turkey and the institutionalization efforts of the Alawi groups in the cities will determine and clarify how the traditional institutions will continue and
whether or not they will continue in the first place.
Balkans is one of the important geographies where Bektashism spread. The Alawi-Bektashi interpretation of Islam began to be represented in this geography from the 13th century onwards. Köprülü
(Veles) is located in the region of Macedonia where Bektashism is heavily adopted. The Hacet Baba
Lodge, which was put into operation in the second half of the 18th century, was located just outside
the town. When the Bektashism was banned in 1826, this lodge was destroyed and its assets were
confiscated by the state. Thus, not only a religious belief center with its large buildings and outbuildings, but also an important agriculture and agricultural center with its farms in the surrounding
villages has been in danger of being erased from history. In 1831, the Hacet Baba Lodge, which was
tried to be transformed into a Naqshi lodge, was re-administered by the Bektashis in the last quarter
of the 19th century. During this period and in the following years, prominent figures such as Hasan
Baba and his sons and Hüseyin Hüsni Erdikut Baba served as the postnişin (the head of the lodge).
There is no trace of the Hacet Baba Lodge, which preserved its vitality in the Balkan Wars until the
out of the Ottoman administration of K(Veles). There is a hospital building on the lodge land today.
In this study, the history of Köprülü Hacet Baba Lodge, which is one of the important centers of
Bektashism in the Balkans, has been handled in the light of the main sources and researches primarily
archive records. In addition, the original images of the archive documents related to the lodge and
the translations to today’s letters are given in the appendix section. In the conduct of this study, the
traces of Hacet Baba Lodge’s historical process have not been discussed in a scientific article before.
This study, which covers the women poets, as the representatives of Alawi-Bektashi Literature,
which dates back to very old years and finds its source in Yunus Emre, and continues with Kaygusuz
Abdal, Hatayi and Pir Sultan Abdal and reaches today, aims to give information on women poets
about whom there are disputes arising from the problems in resources classified according to their
In this study, in which forty-eight publications were examined, except the basic works and anthologies of the field, from the beginning to the end in all chapters, information is given about eighty-two
different people three of which are from 16th century, four from 18th century, twenty-nine from the
19th century and forty-one from the 20th century, also there are four poets whose century is not known
and one more poet who is revealed to be a man in fact. In the conducted research, it was determined
that the first poet known to have lived is from the 16th century. The poet who lived in the 18th century
was not found in the resources.
The cases of twelve women poets, about whom there are problems beginning from those especially
on gender such as whether the poet was a man or a woman, varying up to the confusion on the dates
of birth and death and name resemblances resulting in confusing these women poets with the poets of
other literatures, are addressed to and discussed in the chapter called “Some Disputes”It has been determined that the women poets especially used the name “Bacı (Sister)”, and that the
usage of this name decreased towards the later centuries and also that when their poems are analyzed,
they mostly wrote poems about the love of Hazrat Ali, Ahl al-Bayt, Haji Bektashi Veli and the person
to whom they are connected.
As distinct from the other studies on the same subject, in this study a higher number of women poets
as the representatives of Alawi-Bektashii Literature were found and the inadvertently made mistakes
in references to previous studies in these resources are tried to be minimized.
France, which captured Syria to protect its interests in the Mediterranean and Middle East at the
end of the World War I, endeavoured to implement the “divide and rule” policy as the easiest
way of reigning over these territories. In line with that policy, they established Lebanon, Druse,
Alawite, Damascus and Aleppo states in Syria, which they divided according to ethnic, religious and
denominational differences and used these states as an instrument to attain their benefits in the region.
According to these policies, the French used especially the Nusayris, which were also called Alawi.
The Nusayris which had their own state under the name of “Alawite State” during the mandate
government of France in Syria, were connected to the Syrian State when France terminated the
mandate government in Syria in 1946.
This paper gives information about being a Nusayri and the Latakia region where the Nusayris live
intensely, in the introduction section. It discusses the operations performed by the French to capture
the region as from the World War I and invasion of the region, under the title “The Process Leading
to the French Occupation in Syria”. The paper also discusses the policies implemented by the French
throughout their mandate government in these territories and reactions to these policies, under the title “Ethnic and Religious Division of Syria under the French Mandate and the Alawite State”.
As distinct from the articles written especially on this issue, the paper reviews the “Alawite State”
and developments concerning this state using relevant works, compilations, newspapers and archive
documents of the era.
The subject of this article is shaped by the meaning of the conceptual field of tawallā (love) and
tabarrā (hate) by Alevi circles and how this meaning forms a typesetting around a fiction. According
to this, based on the basic sources, the meaning given by Alevis within the meaning attributed to
tawallā and tabarrā was tried to be clari-fied. The evaluation of the concepts in different disciplines
and sciences was tried to explain the meaning gained to tawallā and tabarrā because common concepts are differentiated by the meanings imposed by different circles. In this respect, it is imperative
that the difference between the meanings attributed by the relevant litera-ture and the Alevi oral and
written sources and the difference between the meanings to be understood clearly. In this respect, it
is a necessity to make clear the difference between the meanings attributed by the relevant litera-ture
and the meaning that is conveyed in the Alevi oral and written sources and the following meaning.
As long as this problem continues, the basic dynamics of the Alevi belief system will become difficult to understand and become uncertain. So if the basic concepts of the program, which have been
described and followed for so many years, did not have their own internal meaning, then it will be
impossible to explain why or where differen-tiation exists. In this respect, the monotonous meaning
and fiction created by the dictionary and encyclopaedic meaning loaded on common concepts will
lead to the impoverishment of the common heritage.
As a result, while discussing the subject with its form and content in Alevi oral and written sources, it
has also benefited from the transfer in the common literature. The Alevi meaning and framework was
established based on the use of tawallā and tabarrā in the dictionary, encyclopedia and basic sources
as the meaning of words, concepts and terms.
Cultural diversity and richness reveal the differences of societies from past to present and are
tried to be transferred to future generations in their simplest form. Scientific studies and literature
acquisitions in the literature are the legacy and natural inheritance of future generations in the light
of certain principles that make oral cultural elements inherited from the past written in the light of
science. The Tahtaci community, who has been trying to keep their traditions alive for centuries in a wide geography starting from the east of the Mediterranean and extending to the northern Aegean,
have transmitted their culture and cultural heritage from generation to generation in their purest
form whenever possible. The community’s unique birth, wedding, death, entertainment, ceremony
etc. having succeeded in conveying their traditions from Central Asia to the present with a closed
society structure, their rituals have been passed down from generation to generation through masterapprentice teachings, as far as possible by the leading guides, scholars and cultural ambassadors of
the Tahtaci community. It is an important hypothesis of this study that the scientific researches of
the traditional approaches of the Tahtacis of Aydın region before the wedding, during the wedding
and after the wedding are unique. Another important aspect of the research is the observation of
Tahtacis’ wedding ceremonies regarded as living verbal culture, tradition and original rituals, and
the scientific analysis of traditions with prominent people belonging to that community. The data in
this study were collected by literature review, observation and structured interview method. Field
research has been conducted in Tahtaci’ villages of Aydın province, namely Alamut, Dutluoluk,
Yeniköy and Yılmazköy. The data obtained were then analyzed and evaluated in the findings section
of the research.
Sufistic Folk Literature is a special part of Turkish Folk Literature. The literary products belonging
to every part of Turkish Folk Literature have their own characteristics. It can be said that although
these types are the most emphasized in terms of speaking and vocalization, the richest in terms of
cultural rituals are products called “deyiş” of Sufistic Folk Literature products. The most special
examples of Sufistic Folk Literature in Anatolia are undoubtedly seen within the framework of the
In addition to extending from the anthropological perspective to the Shaman culture, this tradition
has created a separate culture, literature and art after the Turks settled in Anatolia from Central Asia
and Turkic regions.
This study was prepared in order to make a cultural, verbal and musical analysis of four works in
the form of “deyiş” by Ali Ekber Çiçek, one of the most important representatives of the Anatolian
This work is important in terms of showing the power of the literary arts used in the works, evident
sides of this culture by making a detailed examination and evaluation of four works in AlawiBektashi tradition.
In the study, in addition to cultural, literary and musical analysis of these four “deyiş” have been
carried out, maqam evaluations have been kept in the secondary degree as the maqams have no direct
effect on traditional Alawi-Bektashi culture and music, and the “deyiş” are produced in a certain
maqam frame. Indeed, the existence and value of musical elements for products belonging to the
Alawi-Bektashi tradition of Anatolian is shaped according to the characteristics of verbal (literary)
and cultural phenomena.
In this study where four words of Ali Ekber Çiçek from the Sufistic Folk Literature universe were
taken as sample, they were used qualitative methods such as source scanning and analysis.
Sıdkî (Pervane) was one of the distinguished poets (âşık, ozan) in the 19th and 20th centuries. As a
deputy of the family of Çelebi of Hacı Bektaş Veli Lodge, he connected the followers (muhibb) with
the lodge (dergah). He served for the community to solve social problems and travelled to the Middle
East and almost every part of Anatolia. He also had an important role in the Turkish Independence
War. In addition to these, his poems in the manuscripts, oral sources from different regions and these
poems’ still being in demand, as well as his virtuous personality all demonstrate his spiritual and
literary significance. There have been many studies on the life and poetry of Âşık Sıdkî (Pervane)
who has continuous impact on the people residing in the region he lived. Although we can draw
some conclusions about his life from his poems, his date of birth and some other information about
his life is still ambiguous.
In this study, written and oral sources from Merzifon district on aşık poetry have been examined. As a
part of findings of this research, some birth records belonging to one of the descendants of Âşık Sıdkî
(Pervane) has been revealed. In connection with this, his date of birth and some other information
about his family have been clarified to a large extent through the findings presented in this paper. His
15 previously unpublished poems written in syllabic meter have also been presented. In one of those
poems, some new findings shedding light on his life have been obtained. The ultimate aim of this
paper is to contribute to future studies on him through these findings.
Written by Abū al-‘Alā Ibn Hassūl Hamadānī, Tafdīl al-Atrāk ‘alā Sā’ir al-Ajnād is the first of the
historical works written during the Seljuq period. This work was written during the conquests of
Sultān Tughril and in the political-military competition and struggle environment between the Buyids
and the Seljuqs. Ibn Hassūl who took aim at literary men-historian al-Sābī’s work named al-Tājī fī
Akhbār al-Dawlat al-Daylimiyya carried the political-military competition and struggle between the
Buyids and the Seljuqs to the field of historiography. He wrote Tafdīl al-Atrāk as an answer to Abū
Ishāk al-Sābī’s work, al-Tājī. Therefore, the first and the main part of the Tafdīl al-Atrāk was devoted
to criticize the historiography of al-Sābī on the origin of the Dailamites and the Buyids. AlthoughIbn Hassūl criticized severely al-Sābī’s style of historiography, he followed himself a similar way in
the writing of Tafdīl al-Atrāk. As al-Sābī praised genealogy and characteristics of the Dailamites, the
Buyids and Adud al-Dawla at al-Tājī, Ibn Hassūl also praised genealogy and virtues of the Turks, the
Seljuqs and Sultān Tughril at Tafdīl al-Atrāk. In this article, the issue of the degree of success of Ibn
Hassūl in competition with al-Sābī in the field of historiography will be discussed. The findings of
this study show that Kitāb al-Tājī was used as a source by succeeding historians because it contains
detailed and original information on the history of the Dailamites and the Buyids. However, Tafdīl
al-Atrāk was hardly ever used as a source by later historians since his author Ibn Hassūl remained
indifferent to recording of historical events about the Seljuqs and Tughril Beg.
In the Balkans, since the 15th century, two different lodges, namely Otman (Atman) Baba and Osman
Baba, have operated within the boundaries of Hasköy district. Even the advocates have been accepted
as the only institution because they operate in the same geography and their names are similar, but
it was determined by a research that these are different lodges. However, it was concluded that the
name of the dervish who had custody was Otman. The issue of whether the dervish’s name is Otman
or Osman is still unclear in the researches and discourses.
The purpose of this study is to reveal that the name of the dervish from the two founders of Osman
and Otman Baba was Osman Baba who was renowned in the Balkan geography, who lived in the period of Fatih Sultan Mehmet and who met with him, and whose custody is written, not Otman Baba,
based on archive records. In the study, the information will be compared with the archive records on
the basis of the knowledge that Osman Baba was single and had no children, the information will
be compared to archive records. The information given in the examination works related to the time
when Osman Baba was at first seen in the scene of history will either be compared with the documents of archive. In addition, the periods when the two sheikhs might have lived and the dates when their lodges may have been established, the information about their family records, the financial
records of their lodges and the quality of their services provided will be analysed. The activities of
Osman Baba lodge, which constitutes the basis of this research, have been continuing and there is a
mausoleum that is surviving through present day. The issue will become clearer with the knowledge
that there is no information about the activities of the institution of the other sheikh Otman Baba after
the 16th century.