Türklerin Alevilikle tanışmaları İslam ile tanışmaya başlamalarıyla aynı dönemlere denk gelmektedir.
Bu nedenle Alevilik öncelikle kırsal bölgelerde yaşayan veya göçebe halde yaşayan Türkler arasında
yayılmaya başlamıştır. Yaşam biçimleri nedeniyle yazılı aktarım bu topluluklarda çok yaygın
değildi. Buna bağlı olarak Alevilik kültürü ve öğretileri daha çok sözlü aktarım araçları ile sonraki
kuşaklara öğretilmiş ve aktarılmıştır. Bu durum her ne kadar Aleviliğe ait bazı kültürel unsurların
kaybolduğu izlenimini yaratsa da bu aktarım ögelerinin gücü ve halk tarafından benimsenmesi sebebiyle
büyük ölçüde muhafaza edildiği anlaşılmaktadır. Şiir ve deyiş gibi farklı biçimleri olan bu
kültürel aktarım unsurlarının en güçlüleri gülbanklardır. Alevi ve Bektaşi sözlü kültüründe bir çeşit
dua niteliği taşıyan Gülbanklar aynı zamanda içeriğinde güçlü ahlaksal öğütler barındırmaktadır.
Gülbanklarda sıkça Türk kültüründe ya da İslam geleneğinde önemsenen değer kalıplarına atıf yapılmaktadır.
Bu çalışmada özellikle Alevi ve Bektaşi gülbanklarında yer verilen “inanç, insan, eğitim
ve ilim, kadının toplumdaki yeri, dostluk, arkadaşlık, sevgi, muhabbet, alçakgönüllülük, yiğitlik,
doğruluk” gibi temel konulardaki değer kalıpları ele alınmıştır. Bununla birlikte diğer sözlü kültür
unsurlarındaki değer kavramları da araştırılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda teorik eserler ve kanaat önderleriyle
yapılan röportajlar incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın temel iddiası Alevi ve Bektaşi sözlü kültüründe
güçlü bir şekilde yer alan değer kavramlarının evrensel ve İslami değerler ile uyumlu olduğu ve
aynı zamanda bu değerlerin Türk kültürünün oluşmasında hayati bir işlev gördüğü yönündedir. Yalın
olarak bu iddia tek başına konuyu önemli ve araştırılmaya değer kılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel
motivasyonu bahsi geçen bu önemdir. Çalışmanın deseni nitel araştırma yöntemlerine uygun olarak
oluşturulmuştur. Bulgular eleştirel bir bakış açısı ve yorumlama tekniği kullanılarak oluşturulmuştur.
Tarih ve tarihî kaynak denince ilk olarak akla devletler ve onların resmî olarak ürettiği arşiv materyali
gelmektedir. Bu durumda toplumun sesini sadece devletle olan irtibatı ölçüsünce duymak mümkün
olmaktadır. Oysa günümüzde tarihçiler artık toplumların ve bireylerin ne düşündükleri, nasıl
bir hayat yaşadıkları gibi daha spesifik sorulara cevap aramaktadır. Tam da bu noktada yeni tarih ve
tarihçilik algısına katkı sunacak bir eser tarafımızdan tespit edilmiş ve yeni yaklaşımlar çerçevesinde
analiz edilmiştir. Söz konusu eser; Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi’nde 2216 numara ile kayıtlı 13
Aralık 1921 - 29 Ağustos 1925 tarihleri arasını kapsayan Hacı Bektaş Veli Hazretleri Türbesinin Ziyaret
Not Defteri isimli kaynaktır. Bu kaynak; Alevi ve Bektaşi toplumu için derin bir mana ve varlık
vesilesi addedilen Hazret-i Pîrʼin dergâhına toplu ve bireysel olarak gelip misafir olanların bu kutsal
mekândaki duygu ve düşüncelerini serbest olarak, oldukça safiyane bir şekilde kaleme aldıkları ve
dile getirdikleri bir eserdir.
Kaynaktaki veriler çerçevesinde ziyaretçilerin devletin çeşitli kademelerinde memur ve asker, sivil-
sıradan vatandaş ve hatta yabancı ülke vatandaşları olanlar şeklinde sınıflandırılabilmektedir. Bu
zenginlik, defteri oldukça önemli kılmaktadır. Nitekim bu vesile ile toplumun hem sivil kesiminin ve
hem de devletin temsilcilerinin sesini bir arada duyma imkânı doğmuştur. Diğer taraftan kaynak bize
dönemin dinî, siyasî, askerî ve içtimai hayatına ilişkin oldukça zengin bilgiler sunmaktadır. Bilhassa
zaman dilimi bakımından bir devrin sonu ve başka bir devrin başlangıcına isabet eden bu defter; bir
manada Osmanlının ölüm acısına Cumhuriyetin ise doğum sancına şahitlik etmesi, dönemin insanlarının
duygu ve düşünceleri ile manevî hayatları ve itikadî duruşlarını yansıtması bakımından da
farklı bir değeri hak etmektedir. Çalışmamızda, söz konusu defterden elde edilen veriler Alevilik veBektaşilik üzerine yazılan literatür desteğinde nitel ve nicel analiz yöntemi ile değerlendirilmiştir.
19. yüzyılda Çorum’a bağlı Alaca (Hüseyinabad) kazası bünyesinde yoğun bir Alevi nüfusunu
barındırmaktadır. Alaca’da ikamet eden Dede Garkın ocağı dedelerinden Garip Dede, burada irşat
faaliyetlerini sürdürmüştür. Bölgede nüfuzlu ve etkin olan Garip Dede’nin bazı faaliyetleri merkezi
otoritenin dikkatini çekmiş ve yapılan tahkikat neticesinde Garip Dede’ye çeşitli suçlamalar isnat
edilmiştir. Bu ithamlar arasında Garip Dede’nin devleti mali açıdan zarara uğratması, kanun
kaçaklarını barındırması ve taliplerinden “dedelik hakkı” adı ile para toplaması gibi maddeler öne
çıkmaktadır. Soruşturma neticesinde Garip Dede’nin suçlu olduğu hükmü verilerek Trablusgarp’a
sürgün edilmiştir. Siyasi otorite tarafından Trablusgarp gibi uzak bir yerin seçilmesi bilinçli olarak
tercih edilmiştir. Alaca ve çevresinin yoğun bir Alevi nüfusu barındırması ve Garip Dede’nin bu
topluluk üzerindeki tesirinden çekinen Devlet onun bu bölgede kalmasını sakıncalı bulmuş ve onu
Trablusgarp’a sürgün etmiştir. Garip Dede sürgün günlerinde çok sıkıntı çekmiş hatta sağlık durumu
bozulmuştur. Garip Dede’nin sürgünde olmasından dolayı ailesi de başsız kalmış ve geçinmekte
zorlanmıştır. Garip Dede ve ailesi gerçekleştirilen bu sürgüne itiraz ederek Garip Dede’nin
masum olduğunu savunmuşlardır. Garip Dede’nin ve ailesinin girişimleri merkezi otorite tarafından
haklı görülerek Garip Dede affedilmiş ve memleketine geri dönmüştür. Ele alınan çalışmada Garip
Dede’nin kim olduğu, sürgün edilme sebepleri, sürgün olayı, sürgünde yaşadıkları, affedilmesi için
verdiği mücadele ve memleketine geri dönüş süreci işlenmiştir.
Due to the fact that the concept of visiting sacred places exists in Turkish culture and Islam, as in
many other belief systems, the importance of beliefs and practices related to tombs, entombed saints
and places of visit increase; and stories of extraordinary behaviours related to the lives of saints, awliyās, erens and dedes are brought along. In this context, the mausoleum, known as Seydisül, is among
the places to go to ask for children, to eliminate infertility, to help grumpy kids behave, to overcome
fear or a disaster, to make a cow give more milk and to make ill tempered animals well behave.
Seydisül Mausoleum in Altıntaş District of Kütahya province, which has been known for its quarries
since ancient times, is open to visitors today. Within the scope of this study, the architectural presentation and decoration features of the tomb are emphasized and an evaluation is made. Up-to-date
photographs, plan drawings and decoration drawings were used in the promotion of the building.
With the introduction of the tomb, which is dated to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of
the 20th century with its architectural and ornamental features, it is aimed to contribute to the field of
architectural history by settling its place within the Anatolian Turkish Architecture.
The Seydisül Mausoleum, which draws attention with the spolia materials in the tomb facades and
the burial it is in, has a square prism body. Despite its plain plan, the structure is important with its dome core, dome skirt, door and window decorations, and painting techniques on dry plaster on the
south facade wall. It is seen that “S-C” fold, curtain motif and flower arrangements are included in
Dervish lodges (tekke) and monasteries (zāwiyah), which played an important role in the foundation
period of the Ottoman Empire, were organized on the basis of futuwwat (bravery) understanding
and encouraged to be established as a religious endowment in the areas assigned by the state. In this
way, most of the lands have been enriched and improved, as well as contributing to the production.
On the other hand, these institutions, which became outposts in ensuring the security of the state,
provided some other services, such as hosting travellers, catering, meeting other needs, and warming
their hearts to the religion of Islam. Thanks to these endowments, the architectural elements, such as
dervish convent, hangars, and hospitals, which classified according to their functional features and
shaped by the teachings of the order, were appeared. An important part of these organizations, which are generally defined as tekke and zāwiyah, were established by the followers of Bektashi order. In
this study, the places where the endowments in question were founded, the purposes of their establishment, the charity services they provided, their management and related issues, and the practices
carried out by the political authority to solve their problems in managing the lodge, were determined.
These endowments were established between the 15th and 19th centuries, especially in cities, namely Istanbul, Izmir, Edirne, Tokat, and, now foreign cities, Crete, Macedonia, Greece and Belgrade.
Some of these were established by notable names in the Bektashi order and the rest by Pashas. The
property of the endowments were generally consists of personal and real estates, money and animals.
Their taxes were paid from the income, the rest was spent for maintenance of the lodges and shrines,
and needs of the poor who shelter in lodges and stay over. Generally, the first person to set up the
endowment was trustee in the management, then his/her children or some one or an authority asked
by the endower. In the event that the child or the person to whom the stipulation was inserted, became
extinct, a person who is post-niche or who is from the Bektashi order is usually required in the Haci
Bektashi Lodge in Kırşehir.
The conversion of the Turks to Islam is considered as one of the main events that had an effect on
shaping the world history. However, the adoption of Islam, i.e. the process of Islamization of the
Turks is a multi-layered subject. There are still many questions that are not answered properly, thus
waiting to be investigated. The nature of the political and military conditions of the period is very
important in evaluating the process of Islamization of the Turks. The work titled Mu‘īn al-Murīd
written by Ersarı Bay’s request sheds an important light on this subject. The members of the Ersarı
Tribe, mostly living in Turkmenistan and whose population is around one and a half million today,
are still grateful for Ersarı Bay’s leadership and the decisions he took, in terms of Islamization. In this
study, the conditions of the 12th century, the results of the Mongol raids and how Ersarı Bay made his
decision that affected the history will be examined. Subsequently, we will take a closer look at how
Islam is explained to the nomadic Turkmens by means of Mu‘īn al-Murīd.
Saint Husayn and his brother Saint Hasan, the grandsons of the Prophet Muhammed, have different
and special positions in Muslim societies. Saint Husayn was martyred by the soldiers of Yazîd, who
has declared himself as khalifa in Karbala. Various works were produced to describe this harrowing
incident. One of them is Nâle-i Uşşâk, which was written by Mustafa Âsım born in 1856, in Istanbul
and died in 1904, in Trabzon. The poet has imitated the work of Kazım Pasha from Koniçe named
Riyâz-ı Asfiyâ. The work is a masnavi consisting of 141 couplets. The poet explained that he has
written this work because he wished to describe the harrowing incident of the great person, Saint
Husayn, in Karbala, after starting his work with basmala. The poet told about deaths of the Prophet
Muhammad, Saint Fatima, Saint Abu Bakr, Saint Omar, Saint Othman, Saint Ali and Saint Hasan in
his work. After that, he started to the main topic he wished to tell. According to the work, Mu‘âwiya
has declared his son Yazîd as khalifa. Yazîd has requested Saint Husayn to obey him. People of Kûfe
have stated that they will support Saint Husayn and called him there, then he has departed towards
there. When he has arrived Karbala, Ibn Ziyâd, one of Yazîd’s commanders, and his soldiers encircled
them. Firstly, they have left them without water, then attacked them. Although Saint Husayn and his neighbours were few in number, they fought heroically. But the heretic named Shimr bin Zi’l-jawshan has martyrized Saint Husayn. Saint Husayn’s family and friends were first exiled to Damascus
and then to Hijaz. This incident caused grief in the entire Muslim world. Even angels in the sky cried
and groaned. Mustafa Âsım described the event in his work in accordance with historical facts. In
this study, it is tried to evaluate the work of Mustafa Âsım named Nâle-i Uşşâk, and transcribed text
of the work is provided at the end. In addition, it has been tried to indicate similar or different aspects
of Koniçeli Kazım Pasha’s work named Riyâz-ı Asfiyâ.
Respecting adults has always had an important place in Islam, and Turkish customs and traditions.
Especially the belief and love for the people who are believed to be capable of showing extraordinary
miracles have preceded others. When they passed away, their tombs have become one of the places
frequented by people. Anatolian people have shown love and respect to such great people for years,
and accepted their graves as a supreme authority. In this context, visiting tombs where people pray
and offer sacrifices to God, has gained a great importance. When their prayers are accepted, they
would pay another visit to the tombs to sacrifice their offerings. Besides, they perform their prayers
through different practices in order to be accepted. Such practices and rituals revolving around the
tombs have continued for years and survived to the present day.
The Hamza Baba Mausoleum, located in Kemalpaşa District of Izmir, continues to exist as a mausoleum that has been visited by Anatolian people for years, where they offered sacrifices, and per-formed various practices and rituals. This study focuses on Hamza Baba Tomb, as it contains both
traces of Turkish culture and Alawi-Bektashi traditions. The study consist of three essential parts,
namely the Hamza Baba Mausoleum, the Bektashi tradition that is followed by Hamza Baba, the
practices and rituals performed around the mausoleum. To this end, interviews were conducted with
the villagers who live in where the tomb is located, and written sources were consulted to discuss the
data gained during fieldwork and enrich the study.
This study focuses on the poets who use Sefil (means poor/wretch) pseudonym and Sefil pseudonym in
Turkish Folk Literature. The study aims to make some explanations about the reasons of pseudonym
usage by focusing on a common pseudonym with the transfer of poets with the same pseudonym
while drawing attention to the reasons of pseudonym usage.
In the study, a list of folk poets using Sefil pseudonym and their determination from many conks (a
kind of diary or notepad which contains poetries) in private and official libraries are also given. It was
determined that seventy-four folk poets used the pseudonym “Sefil”. Thus, it will be seen that folk
poets, who preferred the pseudonym of “Sefil”, also facilitated the clues about both time and place
and the lore and sufism circles to which they belong.
Since the use of pseudonym in poetry is common, it is not possible to restrict a particular pseudonym
using a specific Sufi school. However, it is possible to say that the poets who used the pseudonym
“Sefil” is mostly in circles with Alawi Bektashi poetry tradition. In order to facilitate the understanding
of this issue, both the list of poets who use the “Sefil” pseudonym in the selected cönks, which isevaluated for this study and the works of poets who use the “Sefil” pseudonym will be given with
As a result, the study dealt with the people of “Sefil” pseudonym poets and by calling himself/
herself “Sefil”, he/she pulls himself/herself into ruin and gives the impression that he/she has avoided
the arrogance and ego that he/she has loaded and tries to direct. The poet expresses the depth and
influence in his/her poetry with his/her pseudonym “Sefil”, which he/she prefers to attract himself/
herself to modesty or to protect himself/herself modestly.
Kazakh Turks have enriched their cultural structure in their negative social life since the VIII century,
after the acceptance of the acceptance of Islam and sharia values in the steppe. Various propaganda
methods were carried out against the Islamic values adopted by the Kazakh society with this cultural
momentum, which lasted about 10 centuries, the annexation of Tsarist Russia and the colonial
administration that followed, and the policy of atheism, which was adopted by the Soviet Communist
party for 70 years.
In the early years, the Soviet administration carefully treated the religious feelings of the native
Kazakh Turks. On the one hand, the Bolsheviks pledged to “protect Muslims” and their rights, on
the other hand tried to destroy their democratic principles. In the second half of the 1920’s, the
“violent attack” policy against Islam started in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).
The totalitarian system, which strengthened until the end of the 1920’s, implemented a political
campaign against the clergy. The organs of the OGPU (United States Political Administration under
Commissariat Council of the USSR) used various methods to prevent the unification of the country’s
Muslims and the political empowerment of religious and clergymen and their National intellectuals.
The Bolsheviks made decisions regarding the registration of religious associations, opening and
closing mosques, and managed to control cultural legislation. This new communist order led to
restrictions and violations of public rights and initiated harsh administrative control over all religious
activities of the country. Within these restrictions, Islam was attacked more than other religions. After
the establishment of the communist administration in Kazakhstan, the first period of famine began in
1921–1922, the policy of collectivization after 1926, the new economic policy and the second period
of hunger, followed by the policy of exposing the elite and genocide of the local population.
Thus, in this article, the ban on Muslim religious organizations, the persecution of mollas and imams,
the closure of mosques, the role of Islam in Kazakhstan, and the issue of famine were classified based
on archival documents.
A special event that continues to remain a mystery by preserving its mystery in the spiritual worlds
of the Kazakh people with their traditional lives is a matter of developing shamanism in the southern
region of Kazakh territory. The Kazakh people called the male shamans “Baksı” and the female
shamans “Elti”. While travellers, scholars, historians and folklore researchers who visited Kazakh
lands in various historical periods, witnessed the ceremonies of the Baksı, they wrote the inspirational
powers and the mysterious movements they saw as they were. Baksıs associate people with the souls
of the dead and mythological heroes. When Baksı’s chanted aloud, they called the elves to help and
each Baksı have had their own pīr (spiritual guide). They picked up kopuz, dombra (Kazakh musical
instruments) and sticks. Baksıs have had the characteristics of bard, murmurer, physician, magician,
and composer, and always kept their own features secret and did not raise students. Although the
language of the tunes, which they sing with the same rhythm, have a feature close to folk poetry, they
have changed in terms of content according to the course of time.
In the southern region of Kazakhstan, the peculiarities began to be investigated scientifically starting
from the 19th century and researchers, such as Chokan Velikhanov, Iyosif Kastanie, Abubakir Divayev, Ishmurat Ibragimov, Nikolay Grodekov, Lev Berg, and Petr Komarov tried to solve the mystery.
Adolf Yanushkevich and Rihard Karut’s studies can be considered as data for comparative analysis.
Researches and documents prove that the Baksı tradition has developed for centuries with ancient
religions, such as animism, shamanism, zoroastrism, and it is a case that later fused with the religion
of Islam and continued to live in the Kazakh people.