Shah Ismail (1487-1524), the Erdebil Dervish Monastery’s Shaykh and the founder of Safavid Dynasty,
is a poet who also writes Turkish poems under the pseudonym Hatayi. His poems were collected in his
works named Deh-name, Nasihat-name and Divan-ı Hatayi. When he was alive, his divan was copied by
many. In addition to the twenty-five manuscripts of Divan-ı Hatayi, there are hundreds of Hatayi poems
in magazines and poetry books. By adding the poems under the psuedonym Hatayi, the copies of Hatayi
Divanı in magazines and poetry books, found in the literature libraries in Turkey and abroad, were also
published by researchers in Baku, Istanbul, Napoli, Tabriz and Tehran. In the present publications,
Berlin, Erdebil, Istanbul, London, Mezar-i Sharif, Paris, Tehran, Tashkent, Tabriz and Vatican copies
of Hatayi Divanı’s were used. The eleven manuscripts of Hatayi Divanı were not used in the present
publications. Some of these examples are very important manuscripts produced by journalists and
illuminators. Some of them are important because they contain the poems of pseudonym Hatayi,
which were not found in the existing poems. This copy, which will be introduced in detail, is a level that
will need to pass on the existing information about the poetry of Shah Ismail in terms of the different
poems which they contain and the accounts in the bookkeeping records.
There are many literary genres in Turkish Islamic Literature which have been formed by getting
nourished from Islamic tradition. One of the most important examples of these genres is called ‘maqtel’.
In general terms, such works which are written on the death of a person gained a special identity in
Islamic culture and became popular with the name of “maqtal-e hussain”. The Prophet Muhammad’s
grandson, Ali and Fâtıma’s son, Hussain’s martyrdom in Karbala have been told in these texts with a
In this study, which aimed to compile the studies prepared about the maqtals, Turkish sources are
examined as much as possible and with these sources a bibliography trial is attempted. In the study,
initially, a brief information about the maqtals will be given, then the texts and studies will be listed and
some of those will be introduced.
Number symbolism has attracted attention of almost all societies since ancient times up to our day,
and also has been important not only for the societies but also for the religions. In general, meanings
attributed to numbers by cultures influenced from Pythagorean philosophy are different, however a
unity of meaning in many points draws attention, as well. Number symbolism has influenced not only
foreign cultures but also the Turkish and Islamic cultures. In these cultures, the numbers one, three,
five, seven, nine, twenty-eight, thirty-two and forty are especially at the forefront.
This work aims to give a brief information on the number symbolism and then elaborates on the
number seven. After discussing the meanings attributed to symbolism of number seven by various
religions and nations, we will touch the meanings attributed to the number seven by Alawite-Bektashi
circles and Hurufi order -these groups were among of the most prominent circles when number
symbolism is mentioned- , which were being represented by Nesimi, who is considered to be one of the
Seven Grand Poets. Moreover, we will give information about the Seven Grand Poets - Nesîmî, Hatâî,
Fuzûlî, Yemînî, Pîr Sultan Abdal, Virânî and Kul Himmet- of the Alawite-Bektashi culture, -these poets
are considered among the representatives of Alawite-Bektashi culture - and the meanings attributed by
them to the number seven, as they mentioned in their diwans (poetry anthologies)
Al-Khidr, which took place among folk beliefs, has a reputable position, espacially among passengers.
There is a strong belief that he will protect those whoare on the journey. Probably because of this belief
a lot of zawiyas had been established in the name of Khidr-Ilyas. In this respect our study primarily
focuses on zawiyas built by Saldjukian and Ottoman derwishes to live together while spreading the
irreligious view sand also serve passengers as a comfortable and safe place while they are on the road.
Here; Khidr-Ilyas maqaams, Khidr-Ilyas named neighborhoods, villages, mosques and masjidsare also
mentioned. Based on the listed zawiyas, further pages of the paper discusses the role of local cults on
the Khidr-Ilyas beliefs at the time of Turks’ arrival to Anatolia. In addition to affects of the tariqats of
the derwishes whom areliving in the mentioned zawiyas, toinfil tration of Khidr-Ilyas beliefs among
Turks is also a subtopic of the article. At this context, roles of Qalandariyya, Haidariyya, Babaiyya and
Bektashi derwishes are argued. On the other hand, the influence of Khidr-Ilyas beliefs above the nonmuslim
habitants of Anatolia is also evaluated under the light of state papers, travel boks and modern
Despite the recent scientific and technological developments, such problems as the state of violence
and fear in the world, material and spiritual dissatisfaction, brutality, injustice, insensitivity towards
what is happening in the world, unhappiness, and dissatisfaction with life render the importance of
values education that is missing and its transmission and encourage the governments to revitalize some
national and universal values and establish a new set of contemporary values, thus bring back the social
control that has almost extincted.
With this in mind, “values education” has been the subject of numerous studies all over the world. Since1995, it has been seriously emphasized and designed as a project called “Living Values Education” to
attempt to revitalize the values that are on the brink of extinction. In this regard, in contemplation of
values being taught in schools, a set of target values within the curriculum of all the courses taught
in primary and secondary education has been determined in our country as well, considering the
relevance of these values to the courses.
In this study, we have attempted to read the poems by Âşık Veysel, who is one of the most important
characters of Turkish folk literature in the twentieth century, in terms of “values education” considering
that many of his works enable the national and spiritual values of Turkish literature to be taught and
transmitted and give advices to his target readers.
The results of studying on 158 poems brought about the fact that Aşık Veysel told his readers many
things in the scope of values education. After identifying over 60 different values, at different frequency
of occurrence, within these poems that consist of about 900 quadrants, the findings are evaluated and
interpreted in terms of values education.
Fedâî Baba was born in 1855 in Yassıçal, one of the central villages of Amasya, and he passed away in
1940. It is rumored that this Aşık who had a different personality stayed in tombs in his childhood.
He studied madrasa in Amasya for a while. According to a widespread rumour, he left madrasa before
he completed his education. In Erbaa, a town in Tokat province, he received the Sufi knowledge
from Deruni Baba descended from entombed Sheikh Mahmut Veli. There are two hundred and fifty
two known poems belonging to this Aşık whose miracles have been told. Fedâî Baba, known for his
ingenuity in his dreams in accordance with the tradition of loveliest poetry, can not play the saz, but has
the ability to sing poetic poem. He is a kind traveler as he frequently visits Amasya as a folk Aşık. He
sang poems in accordance with both Ottoman and folk poetry styles. The poems which he composedin ottoman poetry style are more complex than his poems in folk poetry in terms of language. Fedâî
Baba who seems to have the ability towards poetry has a lyrical style. It is seen that his poems reflect
this tradition as he is a member of the Alevi Bektashi tradition, which expresses the essence of the Sufi
tradition such as “İlmi ledün, mürşit, zikir, dört kapı, ilahi aşk, tevhit”. He masterfully blended the basic
features of Sufism and Bektashi cultures in his poems.
Amasya has an important place in Alevi Bektashi culture. Fedâî Baba has not been investigated much
even though he had a strong influence in this area. In this work, his biography has been focused and in
line with his poems his prominence and mysticism in Alevi Bektashi culture has been put forward. This
Aşık, who should be considered as a value of Amasya, tried to educate the public and show the right
way to them. In his eighty-five year long life, he continued the previous tradition successfully and tried
to establish brotherhood within Anatolian society.
The sheikh record, which is the subject of this study, is a document containing a petition which demands
that the Bektashi order be recognized like the other orders and be accepted within the religion of Islam,
and several written applications to the government of the time, the Sultan, by the Bektashi Dervish
Lodge postnisin Haji Abdullah Baba of Topkapı Takyeci neighborhood and four other people from
the babas. The document, which was delivered to Meclis-i Meşayîh (Chamber of Sheikhs) within the
Shaykh al-Islam institution in order to get their views on the information and demands included in the
document, consists of three chapters and a conclusion part. The translation of the document dated
1920 was conducted by Asst. Prof. Ayhan Işık who detected the document in the meşîhat archive of
the Istanbul Mufti’s Office, on behalf of the Turkish Culture and Haji Bektash Veli Association (Türk
Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Velî Vakfı). The original images and transcription of the document is included
in the appendix of the study. A simplified Turkish text which contains the following information
was examined by our association and evaluated with the present written sources: Haji Bektash Veli’s
genealogy, his spiritual lineage of Hodja Ahmed Yesevi, the education he received from Lokman
Perende, his marital status being single, his following representatives who were not his children but
companions, the number of dervishes he raised, the customary practices of the Bektashi order.
Water is the most important factor in sustaining our lives to maintain. It is seen in excavations that
healing waters have been used since the early ages. There are different sacred waters are believed to be
healing, such as hot spring and spas. The healing effects of these waters depend on beliefs, interpersonal
incuncation, legends, personal beliefs, impressive anonymous interpretations and influence of people
who say they have healing etc.
It is known that water is sacred among Turks. The ground-water cult has become one of the official
cults of the state in the eighth century. After the Turks converted to Islam, they kept the marks of the
water cult for a long time. Beliefs about the holiness of water still exist today. Today, the belief that water
is thought to be a life-giving and a creative sacred is continuing with “zemzem water” beside the “asa
In this article “asa waters” will be studied. Research limited to Kastamonu. Pir Sheikh Shaban-i VelîKülliyesi Asa Suyu, Benli Sultan Külliyesi Asa Suyu, Abdal Hasan Külliyesi Asa Suyu, Haraçoğlu
Türbesi Asa Suyu and Mehmet Efendi Türbesi Asa Suyu will be discussed together with myths, beliefs
and practices. They are believed to be holy and healing in Kastamonu.
At the end of compilations and observations, it was observed that beliefs and practices around “asa
waters” continue. Also there are thousands results when a search is made on “asa water” in the internet
environment. These findings show that the sanctity of water in Turkish culture has been going on for
centuries and has been direct to the behaviors of today’s people.
This paper focuses on Sheikh Hassan and Sheik Ahmad Tawil, who both arrived in Anatolia to flee
the Mongol invasion. The fact that Ocaks were founded in their name shows that they were two wellknown
and highly influential dervishes of the time and milieu, in which they lived. However, these
dervishes have so far received little scholarly attention and the historical knowledge about them is
scarce and limited to unreliable accounts. These accounts maintain that both were close to and trained
by Ahmad Yassawi and they were sent to Anatolia for the Islamization of this land. These accounts even
led to a view that Sheikh Ahmad Tawil was in fact, Ahmad Yasawi himself so “Ahmad Tawil Ocak” was
also called “Ahmad Yassawi Ocak”. Planned as qualitative research, the method employed in the paper
is document analysis. The data collected on Sheikh Hassan, Sheikh Ahmad Tawil and Abu al-Wafa al-
Baghdadi was evaluated based on the method of document analysis. Hence, this paper attempts to show
the connection of Sheikh Hassan and Sheikh Ahmad Tawil with Abu al-Wafa al-Baghdadi and discuss
the other issues mentioned above. Furthermore, the identities of Sheikh Hassan and Sheikh Ahmad
Tawil as well as the influence of Wafai tradition on Alawi Ocaks are revealed. Finally, the connection
of Sheikh Hassan with the Sheikh Hassan tribe of Tunceli region is brought to attention. The paperconcludes that while the oral tradition maintains Sheikh Hassan and Sheik Ahmad Tawil are two
dervishes trained and sent to Anatolia by Ahmad Yassawi, based on documents from year 1530 they
were, in fact, connected to Abu al-Wafa and played an important role in the Islamization of the region.