Image-guided Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of Vascular Malformations of the Male Genitalia - A Retrospective Study
Authors: Richard Brill
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Purpose: Regarding genital lesions, the incidence of male external genitalia vascular anomalies is circa 3%, thereof one-tenth tumors and nine-tenth malformations according to the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies classification. Image-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy in male external genitalia vascular malformations has rarely been described. Therefore, a retrospective analysis of sclerotherapy in a series of eight patients was conducted. Materials and Methods: The study was IRB approved. Two radiologists reviewed angiographic reports and analyzed interventionally treated male patients with external genitalia vascular malformations between February 2, 2014, and November 11, 2017, at an interdisciplinary tertiary care Vascular Anomalies Center. Inclusion criteria were a slow-flow malformation of the male external genitalia and no interventional treatment before. Operations longer than 1-year past were no exclusion criteria. Patients suffered from lymphatic and/or venous malformations and received percutaneous sclerotherapy. Malformations were treated with polidocanol, ethanol in gel form or OK-432. Patients answered a questionnaire regarding symptoms with repeat after follow-up. The initial state and post-treatment results were compared. Magnetic resonance imaging pre- and post-intervention was assessed. Complications were reported standardized. Results: Eight patients with a mean age of 21.6 years suffered from genital swelling, bleeding, thrombophlebitis, lymphorrhea, skin changes, pain, and functional genitourinary symptoms and were treated with sclerotherapy. All patients reported clinical improvement of symptoms during the average follow-up period of 30 months. No complications ensued. Conclusion: Sclerotherapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment of slow-flow malformations of the male external genitalia. Due to the low incidence of the disease, multicenter studies are necessary to assess a larger number of cases.