Health Risk Assessment Based on the Trace Elements in the Fruits and Vegetables Grown in an Industrial Area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh
Authors: Md. Juel Mahmud , Mahfuza Sharifa Sultana, Sakhawath Hossain , Sajin Sultana , Md. Mostafizur Rahman *
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Background: Food security is an alarming issue to researchers. This study aimed to evaluate the trace metals in fruits and vegetables and their impact on human health in Konabari industrial area (Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh) during 2016-2017.
Methods: Wet acid digestion determined the concentrations of eight trace elements (aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, and zinc) in 28 samples of 10 fruits and vegetables (papaya, guava, banana, Malabar spinach, eggplant, jute tender leaves, watercress, water spinach, gourd leaves, and cauliflower) using a microwave and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. To assess the human health risk, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was calculated only for iron, manganese, and zinc in Microsoft Excel.
Results: The mean concentrations of aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium manganese, sodium, and zinc were 764.2, 6664.6, 556.2, 3551.14, 4479.4, 1034, 1559.8, and 128.6 mg/kg, respectively, which decreased as Ca>Mg>K>Na>Mn>Al>Fe>Zn. Most values exceeded the total nutritional levels for these fruits and vegetables, while the estimated daily intake of the elements was acceptable. The THQ of the fruits and vegetables consumed by the adult population was <1.
Conclusion: As the THQ was <1, the consumption of the samples posed no major health risks in terms of the trace elements.