Evaluation of the Effects of Yoyo Bitters on Albino Rats
Authors: Anionye JC1, Onyeneke EC2, Eze GI3, Edosa RO1, Agu KC1, Omorowa EF1, Oghagbon ES1.
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This study evaluated the effects of Yoyo bitters on albino rats. Yoyo bitters is composed of five herbal constituents. Yoyo was administered using an oro-gastric gavage to different sets of male albino Wistar rats, after which biochemical and haematological indices and histological status of the bitters-fed rats, as well as the acute toxicity (LD50) and subchronic toxicity of the Yoyo bitters on the rats were investigated using standard laboratory procedures. During the 28 days of feeding with the Yoyo bitters there was no sedation, no changes in nature of stool, urine and eye colour, no discharge from the eyes and ears, no haematuria, no diarrhoea and no uncoordinated muscle movements. The yoyo bitters were well tolerated as they improved rather than adversely affected the appetite of the rats. The minimal and non-significant differences (P>0.05) in all the indices used to assess, the liver, kidney and cardiac function statuses of the Yoyo bitters-fed rats compared to same in the control rats, was indicative that Yoyo bitters preserved the functions of these organs. The increase in the CD4+-count and decrease in the level of the fasting blood glucose in the yoyo bitters-fed rats when compared to that of the control rats was significant (P<0.05). There was decrease in serum triacylglycerol, VLDL and LDL-cholesterol levels and an increase in HDL-cholesterol in the bitters fed rats, the decrease in serum triacylglycerol and VLDL being statistically significant (P<0.05). Yoyo bitters-fed rats had a significant decrease (P<0.05) in their serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a significant increase (P<0.05) in their serum vitamin C and E levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, when compared with that of the control rats. The results from this study indicate that Yoyo bitters may be said to be hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, immunity-boosting, choleretic, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, as well as having antioxidant properties and protective against heart and related vascular diseases.