FORGETTING THE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL BY SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MNEMONIC ABILITIES
Authors: Lyubov V. Cheremoshkina, Tatyana N. Osinina
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There are the results of the research of forgetting the educational material by schoolchildren of 12 - 13 years old with different levels of the development of the mnemonic abilities are submitted in the article. The aim of the research was to study forgetting of the educational material by schoolchildren depending on their mnemonic abilities.
The study of mnemonic abilities of schoolchildren was carried out with the use of the technique of diagnosis of mnemonic abilities created by L.V. Cheremoshkina. This technique is based on the method of developed mnemonic activity. To study the forgetting of the educational material was used the procedure, the incentive material of which represents a fragment from a textbook on biology for the 6th form of general educational establishments. This phase of the investigation is based on the method of singling out the semantic units.
The text that we have chosen in a textbook on biology enables us to investigate both functional and operational, and regulating parties of memory. In particular during the reproduction of the given fragment, there is an opportunity to follow various ways of processing and reconstruction of the original text: generalization, concretization, replacement of words, omissions, etc. Moreover, the chosen educational text promotes the occurrence of new details in reproduction as some facts described in it are well known to schoolchildren on the basis of their life experience. The presence of names own, dates, numbers promotes such a way of reconstruction of the original text such as distortion during the reproduction.
The comparative analysis of the curve of forgetting of the sensible material and the curve of forgetting senseless syllables by H. Ebbinghaus has been carried out.
The received results indicate the fact that the educational text as a variant of a sensible verbal material results in activisation of operational and regulating parties of memory, and "entwines" in the system of the earlier acquired information, in other words, the system of knowledge of a pupil due to these mechanisms. In consequence, the "curve" of forgetting the educational text gets the other, much flatter form, rather than the "curve" of forgetting senseless syllables.