INTELLIGENCE: GENESIS OF CONCEPT AND MODERN INTERPRETATION
Authors: Tatyana V. Masharova, Elena L. Syrtsova
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Disclosing essence of concept "intelligence" it is necessary to consider concepts "morality", "education", "breeding". Historically there were two directions in understanding morality: religious and secular. The religious consciousness saw in spirit of the man a part of the God, which comprehension is impossible with the help of reason. The difference of a secular approach on morality from religious one is that in the second approach there is no idea of connection of morality with the God, as determining beginning of life of the man. Morality is shown in need of self-perfection, rising of the man above himself. The intelligence, as property of the man, is based on morality, activity of spirit. The intelligence includes a conscious part of activity of spirit, reasonable, intellectual, rational. The intelligence is a part of morality in cognitive understanding. The basis for intelligence is education. Education includes the sum of knowledge received during training, information about changes in this science in time, and also aspiration and need in development, increasing of this knowledge, skill to take new possessions. The man educated should have the opinion about the new scientific data and be able to prove it. The man cultured constantly improves the intelligence, as the flow of the information is huge and never comes to an end. The intellectual perfection has no borders. The intelligence understood through breeding, assumes presence of an internal core of the person, a certain code of honour, decency and nobleness. Along with the listed qualities, the intelligence includes politeness, tact, fidelity and compassion. This is the modern conception of the brought up man. Breeding is characterized by the set of socially qualities generated enough, which reflect the system of man's attitudes to a society, people, activity, nature, art. It is possible to tell, that it is the certain level of culture of the person, one of which parameters is the skill to carry out search and to make a moral choice in non-standard situations. In modern interpretation the intelligence is understood as integrative quality of the man, which includes the harmonious advanced spiritual-moral, professional-labour and civil culture. So, a modern intellectual is a tolerant and responsible person having large internal culture, recognizing self-value of a personality, respecting his rights and advantages, guided in the acts and actions by conscience and validity, able and aspiring to work at a high professional level, keeping an active civil position.