THEORETICAL EXPLANATION OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS THEORY FOR TEACHING SCIENCE
Authors: Parvin Bazghandi, Saeid Zarghami-Hamrah, Yahya Ghaedi, Alireza Mahmudnia, Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast
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The present study seeks to explain the implications of triple levels of the complex systems theory, as a theory about nature, science, and education, for teaching science. The study has been conducted within a philosophical approach. On the first level, the characteristics of complex systems theory about nature including: top-down character, non-linear interactions, emergence, irreversibility, self-organization, modularity, hierarchy, adaptation and bifurcation are explained. In this regard the point to be mentioned is that the teachers could facilitate the students' understanding from the fundamental features of nature by offering diverse and suitable examples. On the second level, the complex systems theory mainly addresses the nature and methodology of science. Regarding the nature of science, scientific knowledge is defined as condition-structured knowledge and regarding the methodology of science, this theory highlights the features including condition-dependent generalisation, condition-dependent laws, condition-dependent explanation, condition-dependent confirmation, and the limitations of model-centered confirmation. The implications from this level of complex systems theory for teaching science encourage the teachers to clarify the methodology of science for the students. Regarding the third level, Complex systems theory orients attentions toward dynamic, complicated, and integrated levels, including the neurological, the experiential, the contextual/material, the symbolic, the cultural, and the ecological levels of education. So teachers might explain the basic features of the natural events through non-linear and holistic methods in teaching science.