Performance of perennial herbaceous plant feed mixtures in different climatic conditions years
Authors: Pavlyuchik E., Kapsamun A., Ivanova N., Tyulin V., Silina O.
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At present, cultivation of new species and varieties of perennial herbaceous plants in the mixed cropping is important in the field forage production. The article presents the main results of a number of field experiments conducted in different years on the agroecological training ground of the All-Russian Research Institute of Reclaimed Lands. It is revealed that the use of modern species and varieties of perennial herbaceous plants with high adaptive properties in herbaceous plant mixtures promotes an increase in the dry mass yield from a unit area to 10.0 t/ha dry weight, due to the wider use of bioclimatic conditions of the cultivation zone. The most highly productive herbaceous plant mixtures of haymaking use are determined, species compositions of fodder mixtures are shown, which have stable productivity by years of use and sustainable adaptability to growing conditions. The indicators of heat and moisture supply during the research on drained lands of the Non-Chernozem zone are given. Observations showed that early–maturing clovers begin to grow from the middle of April and are actively growing due to the use of spring moisture reserves in the root layer of the soil, blooming in the second half of June, which allows them to form two cuttings per season. The compound feeds were characterized by high productivity at the first mowing in the phase of the beginning of budding, which during the years of research was in the range of 4.0–6.7 t/ha dry weight, with secondary mowing the productivity is lower — 1.4–4.6 t/ha. It is recommended to use two bean components in the legume-grass herbaceous plant mixtures — a Red clover and more long-term culture — Medicago × varia, which increases the duration of use of mixtures to five and more years with stable performance. In experiment 2, three–component agrocenoses, on an average over five years of use, formed the mixture performance with two cuttings clovers 6.6–8.2 t/ha, with one cuttings clovers — 4.3–5.4 t/ha dry weight. The yield of the dry weight of binary herbaceous plant mixtures of experiment 1 averaged over three years of use of mixtures with two cuttings — 4.7–6.5 t/ha, with one cutting — 4.1–5.1 t/ha.