The author cites information about the spread of slave labor and the slave trade in countries on the shores of the Black and Mediterranean Seas. At the same time, he concludes that the Italians laid the beginning of the slave trade in the Black Sea, and then the Crimean Tatars and Turks continued it. In Crimea itself, slave labor was not used but in Turkey, Egypt, and Rus-Muscovy it was a common practice. From the Renaissance, Europeans began to purchase slaves in both regions. It was not only slaves captured in raids that entered the market. Of the Slavic and Caucasian families they were sold during the famine years or because of general poverty. The author concludes that slavery was least developed in the Crimean Khanate and most in Turkey. Bulgaria, Moldavia and Wallachia occupied a middle position in this sense. Everywhere in these countries the service time of the slave was limited, after some time he was released.
The article analyzes the section “Slavery and the slave trade” from a valuable monograph by the famous historian F.V. Totoev “The social structure of Chechnya (second half of the 18th – 40s of the 19th century). Nalchik, 2009. 375 p.”, which has a difficult fate. Being published many years after its writing, this work, even today, by coincidence, was "unnoticed" by experts. Meanwhile, this section contains interesting arguments of a specialist, who have not lost their scientific significance so far and demonstrate the real level of development of slavery (possession of prisoners) in Chechnya during this period. According to the scientist, this phenomenon developed in Chechnya in line with the genesis of the local society, which followed the path of feudalization. Slaveholding relations could not reach the systemic “formational” level in Chechnya due to the lack of social, economic and political prerequisites for this. At the same time, the functioning of slavery played a major role in the process of strengthening the position of the Chechen teip elite, which increased its power by raiding actions in order to capture prisoners and booty. The final integration of Chechnya into the Russian state following the “Caucasian War” and the subsequent peasant reform in 1861 stopped the development of local slave-owning (captive) relations, which had progressive historical consequences for this region.
The work reveals circumstances of captivating natives of Poland by highlanders of the Northern Caucasus. It appreciates military and political reasons the Poles had to be in the region. It also shows their difficulties in a strange land, restored by their stories. The article describes the Russian authorities’ steps to make out the circumstances of highlanders’ captivating and arranging their lite. It traces the way “My people” and “Alien people” meanings changed in the mind of Poles in the extreme situations.
The author analyzes the judicial-legal conflict related to the fate of the Pago female-hilander, who actually had the status of a slave-unauta and was originally a serf in the Cossack of the Terek Cossack army, Yegor Tambiyev, who came from the Circassian-Gai (Armenian Circassian). Subsequently, Pago was acquired from him by Colonel Sokolov, whose wife was a relative of Tambiyev. A few years later, the colonel attempted to return Pago to its original owner. However, Tambiyev, who by this time emerged from the Cossack class, became a tradesman and changed his name (he became Melikov), lost the right to own serfs. For this reason, he refused to accept Pago and return the money. In this regard, the sons of Sokolov sold a woman in Mozdok to a resident of Malaya Kabarda I. Zagashtov. The sale was contested by the Pago hot house, which was first taken from the new owner and transferred to bail by the administration representative, and finally released in 1867. The fate of the Pago woman reflected the particularities of the transition period and were related to the fact that the North Caucasus was on the eve of the abolition of serfdom, already accomplished at this time in Russia.
Basing on the data of literary and archival sources, documents of customary law of Dagestan peoples, act materials, and results of field expeditionary studies, taking into account the achievements in studying the problem by the researchers of the Caucasus of modern and contemporary times, using comparative analogies of similar forms of dependence of neighboring peoples in the North Caucasus, and without claiming to exhaustive treatment of the problem, the author of the article performs a comparative and historical analysis of the main forms of enslavement and the sources of slavery, which took place in Late Medieval Dagestan, cites various views and judgments existing in Caucasian studies on the causes and specifics of the expansion of mountainous societies of Dagestan and Georgia into adjacent territories.
At the beginning of the XX century some don authors, including S.G. Svatikov and A.A. Karasev, used the term «enslavement» in relation to the modern Cossacks. According to them, in the years 1880–1890. Don Cossacks turned into a «military serfs». In the article we try to analyze the validity of such statements. On the basis of archival documents and materials of a number of Don Commissions, it is shown that the Cossacks of the service category were actually attached to the villages, several times a year calling in them to check equipment. The military authorities received the right to arrest and insult them for any malfunction in this equipment. Finally, for the debts in the amount of the villages, the property of the Cossack could be sold, and its share was leased. Based on these factors, it is necessary to recognize that the statement about the «enslavement» of the Cossacks is based on certain factual data.
«Comfort women» refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, etc. «Comfort women» endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed. This article reviews all the studies that have investigated the psychiatric or psychosocial sequelae of the survivors of the Japanese military sexual slavery. Most importantly, a recent study which conducted a psychiatric evaluation on the former «comfort women» currently alive in South Korea is introduced. The participants’ unmarried rate was relatively high and their total fertility rate was relatively low. Majority of the participants reported having no education and being the low economic status. They showed high current and lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic disorder, major depressive disorder, somatic symptom disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed high suicidality and majority of the participants still reported being ashamed of being former “comfort women” after all these years. The trauma has affected the mental health and social functioning of former “comfort women” throughout their lives, and even to the present day.